Pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng mga pagbago ng "Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Estados Unidos"

walang buod ng pagbabago
m (Inilipat ni Atn20112222 ang pahinang Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng mga Nagkakaisang Estado papunta sa Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Estados Unidos na nasa ibayo ng ibang kapupuntahan)
 
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{{Infobox high court
|court_name = {{nowrap|Supreme Court of the United States}}
| imagesize = 180px
| established = 1789
| country = [[UnitedEstados StatesUnidos]]
| location = [[Washington, D.C.]]
| coordinates = {{Coord|38|53|26|N|77|00|16|W|display=inline,title}}<!--This is in 1.8" (0.0005 deg) increments, appropriate for the scale of the building-->
| type = Nominasyon ng [[Pangulo ng Estados Unidos]] na may pagkukumpirma ng [[Senador ng Estados Unidos]]
| type = [[President of the United States|Presidential]] nomination with [[United States Senate|Senate]] [[advice and consent|confirmation]]
| authority = [[ConstitutionSaligang ofbatas theng UnitedEstados States|U.S. ConstitutionUnidos]]
| terms = [[Supreme Court of the United States#Tenure|Life tenurePanghabangbuhay]]
| positions = 9, [[#Size of the Court|byayon statute]]
| website = [http://www.supremecourt.gov/ supremecourt.gov]
| chiefjudgetitle = [[ChiefPunong JusticeHustisya ofng theEstados United StatesUnidos]]
| chiefjudgename = [[John Roberts]]
| termstart = SeptemberSetyembre 29, 2005
}}
{{Politics of the United States}}
 
Ang '''Korte Suprema ng Estados Unidos''' o '''Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng mgaEstados Nagkakaisang EstadoUnidos''' pinakamataas na korte[[hukuman]] sa [[Estados Unidos]]. Ito ay may huli (at malaking [[certiorari|diskresyonaryong]]) [[apeladong hurisdiksiyon]] sa lahat ng mga [[korteng pederal ng Estados Unidos]] at sa mga kaso ng [[korte ng estado]] na kinasasangkutan ng mga isyu ng batas pederal sa isang maliit na saklaw ng mga kaso. <ref name="overview">{{cite web|url={{SCOTUS URL|about/briefoverview.pdf}} |title=A Brief Overview of the Supreme Court|format=PDF|publisher=United States Supreme Court|accessdate=2009-12-31}}</ref> Ang Korte na nagpupulong sa [[United States Supreme Court Building|Gusali ng Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Estados Unidos]] sa [[Washington, D.C.]] ay binubuo ng [[Punong Hustisya ng Estados Unidos]] at mga walong [[kaugnay na hustisya]] na ninominahinihirang ng [[PresidentePangulo ng Estados Unidos]] at kinumpirma ng [[SenadorSenado ng Estados Unidos]]. Kapag nahirang, ang mga hustisya ay may tenure na pam buhay malibang magbitiw, magretiro o inalis pagkatapos ng ''[[impeachment]]''.<ref name="constitution">{{cite web|url=http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/article03/|title=U.S. Constitution, Article III, Section 1|accessdate=2007-09-21}}</ref><ref>''See, in dicta'' [[Northern Pipeline Co. v. Marathon Pipe Line Co.]], [http://www.enfacto.com/case/U.S./458/50 458 U.S. 50], 59 (1982); [[United States ex rel. Toth v. Quarles]], [http://www.enfacto.com/case/U.S./350/11/ 350 U.S. 11], 16 (1955).</ref>
==Mga kasapi==
===Mga kasalukuyang Hustisya===
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"
|-
!Pangalan
!Ipinanganak
! Hinirang ni
! Boto ng pagkukumpirma ng Senado
! Edas sa pagkakahirang
! Unang araw /<br />Tagal ng serbisyo
! class = "unsortable"|Mga nakaraang posisyon
|-
| [[File:File-Official roberts CJ cropped.jpg|100px|Roberts]]
'''{{Sortname|John |Roberts}}'''
([[Chief Justice of the United States|Chief Justice]])
|{{dts|1955|1|27}}<br />(age {{age nts|1955|1|27}})<br />in [[Buffalo, New York]]
| {{Sortname|George W.|Bush}}
| 78–22
| 50
| style="white-space:nowrap;"|{{dts|2005|9|29}}<br />{{age in years and months|2005|9|29}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit]] (2003–2005); Pribadong pagsasanay (1993–2003); Professor, [[Georgetown University Law Center]] (1992–2005); [[United States Solicitor General|Principal Deputy Solicitor General]] (1989–1993);Pribadong pagsasanay(1986–1989); [[White House Counsel|Associate Counsel to the President]] (1982–1986); [[United States Attorney General|Special Assistant to the Attorney General]] (1981–1982)
|-
| [[File:Antonin Scalia official SCOTUS portrait crop.jpg|100px|Scalia]]
'''{{Sortname|Antonin|Scalia}}'''
|{{dts|1936|3|11}}<br />(age {{age nts|1936|3|11}})<br />in [[Trenton, New Jersey]]
| {{Sortname|Ronald|Reagan}}
| 98–0
| 50
| {{dts|1986|9|26}}<br />{{age in years and months|1986|9|26}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit]] (1982–1986); Propesor, [[University of Chicago Law School]] (1977–1982); [[United States Assistant Attorney General|Assistant Attorney General]] (1974–1977); Propesor, [[University of Virginia School of Law]] (1967–1974); Private practice (1961–1967)
|-
| [[File:Anthony Kennedy official SCOTUS portrait crop.jpg|100px|Kennedy]]
'''{{Sortname|Anthony|Kennedy}}'''
| {{dts|1936|7|23}}<br />(age {{age nts|1936|7|23}})<br />sa [[Sacramento, California]]
| {{Sortname|Ronald|Reagan}}
| 97–0
| 51
| {{dts|1988|2|18}}<br />{{age in years and months|1988|2|18}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit]] (1975–1988); Professor, [[McGeorge School of Law]], [[University of the Pacific (United States)|University of the Pacific]] (1965–1988); Private practice (1963–1975)
|-
| [[File:Clarence Thomas, official SCOTUS portrait, crop.jpg|100px|Thomas]]
'''{{Sortname|Clarence|Thomas}}'''
| {{dts|1948|6|23}}<br />(age {{age nts|1948|6|23}})<br />in [[Pin Point, Georgia]]
| {{Sortname|George H. W.|Bush}}
| 52–48
| 43
| {{dts|1991|10|23}}<br />{{age in years and months|1991|10|23}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit]] (1990–1991); Chairman, [[Equal Employment Opportunity Commission]] (1982–1990); [[legislative assistant]] for [[Missouri]] [[United States Senate|Senator]] [[John Danforth]] (1979–1981); employed by [[Monsanto Company]] Inc. (1977–1979); [[Missouri Attorney General|Assistant Attorney General]] in [[Missouri]] under [[State Attorney General]] [[John Danforth]] (1974–1977)
|-
| [[File:Ruth Bader Ginsburg, official SCOTUS portrait, crop.jpg|100px|Ginsburg]]
'''{{Sortname|Ruth Bader|Ginsburg}}'''
| {{dts|1933|3|15}}<br />(age {{age nts|1933|3|15}})<br />in [[New York, New York]]
| {{Sortname|Bill|Clinton}}
| 96–3
| 60
| {{dts|1993|8|10}}<br />{{age in years and months|1993|8|10}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit]] (1980–1993); General Counsel, [[American Civil Liberties Union]] (1973–1980); Professor, [[Columbia Law School]] (1972–1980); Professor, [[Rutgers School of Law–Newark|Rutgers University School of Law]] (1963–1972)
|-
| [[File:Stephen Breyer official SCOTUS portrait crop.jpg|100px|Breyer]]
'''{{Sortname|Stephen|Breyer}}'''
| {{dts|1938|8|15}}<br />(age {{age nts|1938|8|15}})<br />in [[San Francisco, California]]
| {{Sortname|Bill|Clinton}}
| 87–9
| 56
| {{dts|1994|8|3}}<br />{{age in years and months|1994|8|3}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit|Chief Judge, Court of Appeals for the First Circuit]] (1990–1994); [[United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the First Circuit]] (1980–1990); Professor, [[Harvard Law School]] (1967–1980)
|-
| [[File:010 alito cropped.jpg|100px|Alito]]
'''{{Sortname|Samuel|Alito}}'''
| {{dts|1950|4|1}}<br />(age {{age nts|1950|4|1}})<br />in [[Trenton, New Jersey]]
| {{Sortname|George W.|Bush}}
| 58–42
| 55
| {{dts|2006|1|31}}<br />{{age in years and months|2006|1|31}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit]] (1990–2006); Professor, [[Seton Hall University School of Law]] (1999–2004); [[United States Attorney|U.S. Attorney]] for the District of New Jersey (1987–1990); [[United States Assistant Attorney General|Deputy Assistant Attorney General]] (1985–1987); [[United States Solicitor General|Assistant to the Solicitor General]] (1981–1985); [[United States Attorney|Assistant U.S. Attorney]] for the District of New Jersey (1977–1981)
|-
| [[File:Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe crop.jpg|100px|Sotomayor]]
'''{{Sortname|Sonia|Sotomayor}}'''
| {{dts|1954|6|25}}<br />(age {{age nts|1954|6|25}})<br />in [[New York, New York]]
| {{Sortname|Barack|Obama}}
| 68–31
| 55
| {{dts|2009|8|8}}<br />{{age in years and months|2009|8|8}}
| [[United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit|Circuit Judge, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit]] (1998–2009); [[United States District Court for the Southern District of New York|District Judge, District Court for the Southern District of New York]] (1992–1998); Private practice (1984–1991); [[Assistant District Attorney]], [[New York County]], [[New York]] (1979–1984)
|-
| [[File:Elena Kagan-1-1.jpg|100px|Kagan]]
'''{{Sortname|Elena|Kagan}}'''
| {{dts|1960|4|28}}<br />(age {{age nts|1960|4|28}})<br />in [[New York, New York]]
|| {{Sortname|Barack|Obama}}
| 63–37
| 50
| {{dts|2010|8|7}}<br />{{age in years and months|2010|8|5}}
| [[Solicitor General of the United States]] (2009–2010); [[Dean of Harvard Law School]] (2003–2009); Professor, [[Harvard Law School]] (2001–2003); Visiting Professor, [[Harvard Law School]] (1999–2001); Associate [[White House Counsel]] (1995–1999); Deputy Director of the [[Domestic Policy Council]] (1995–1999); Professor, [[University of Chicago Law School]] (1995); Associate Professor, [[University of Chicago Law School]] (1991–1995)
|}
 
====Court demographics====
{{main|Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States}}
The Court currently has six male and three female justices. One justice is African American, one is Latino, and two are Italian-Americans; six justices are Roman Catholics, and three are Jewish. The average age is {{age in years and months|1945|11|27}}, and every current justice has an [[Ivy League]] background.<ref>{{cite news|author = Baker, Peter|title = Kagan Is Sworn in as the Fourth Woman, and 112th Justice, on the Supreme Court|work=New York Times|date = August 7, 2010|url = http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/08/us/08kagan.html|accessdate = August 8, 2010}}</ref> Four justices are from the state of New York, two from New Jersey, two from California, and one from Georgia.
 
In the 19th century, every justice was a [[Caucasian race|Caucasian]] male, and concerns about diversity focused on geography, to represent all [[Regionalism (politics)|regions]] of the country, rather than ethnic, religious, or gender diversity.<ref name=obrien46>{{cite book|name=O'Brien, David M.|title=Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics|edition = 6th |year=2003 |page=46|publisher=W.W. Norton & Company|isbn=0-393-93218-4}}</ref> [[Thurgood Marshall]] became the first [[African American]] Justice in 1967, and [[Sandra Day O'Connor]] became the first female Justice in 1981. O'Connor, whose appointment fulfilled [[Ronald Reagan]]'s [[United States presidential election, 1980#Campaign promises|campaign promise]] to place a woman on the Court, was later joined by Ruth Bader Ginsburg, appointed by [[Bill Clinton]] in 1993. Marshall was succeeded by [[Clarence Thomas]] in 1991, who is the second African American to serve on the Supreme Court. After O'Connor had in 2006 been succeeded by [[Samuel Alito]], Ginsburg was in 2009 joined by [[Sonia Sotomayor]], the first [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Latino]] justice, and in 2010 by [[Elena Kagan]], so that there were three female justices.
 
Most justices have been Protestants, including thirty-five [[Episcopal Church in the United States of America|Episcopalians]], nineteen [[Presbyterian]]s, ten [[Unitarianism|Unitarians]], five [[Methodist]]s, and three [[Baptists]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.adherents.com/adh_sc.html|title = Religion of the Supreme Court|publisher=adherents.com|date=January 31, 2006|accessdate=2010-07-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite book| first1=Jeffrey A.|last1=Segal|first2=Harold J.|last2=Spaeth|title=The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited |publisher=Cambridge Univ. Press. |year=2002|isbn=0-521-78971-0|page=183}}</ref> The first [[Roman Catholic|Catholic]] justice was Roger Taney in 1836, and 1916 saw the appointment of the first [[Judaism|Jewish]] justice, [[Louis Brandeis]]. In recent years this situation has reversed: after the retirement of Justice [[John Paul Stevens|Stevens]] in June 2010, the Court is without a Protestant for the first time in its history.<ref name=Gibson>{{cite web|author=Gibson, David|title=No Protestants: A New Order in the Supreme Court|date=May 10, 2010|accessdate=2010-07-08|publisher=Politics Daily|url=http://www.politicsdaily.com/2010/05/10/no-protestants-a-new-order-in-the-supreme-court/}}</ref>
 
===Retired justices===
There are currently three living ''retired justices of the Supreme Court of the United States'': [[John Paul Stevens]], [[Sandra Day O'Connor]], and [[David Souter]]. As retired justices, they no longer participate in the work of the Supreme Court, but may be designated for temporary assignments to sit on lower federal courts, usually the [[United States Courts of Appeals]]. Such assignments are formally made by the [[Chief Justice of the United States|Chief Justice]], on request of the [[Chief Judge]] of the lower court and with the consent of the retired Justice. In recent years, Justice O'Connor has sat with several Courts of Appeals around the country, and Justice Souter has frequently sat on the [[First Circuit]], the court of which he was briefly a member before joining the Supreme Court.
 
The status of a retired Justice is analogous to that of a Circuit or District Judge who has taken [[senior status]], and eligibility of a Supreme Court Justice to assume retired status (rather than simply resign from the bench) is governed by the same age and service criteria.
 
Justices sometimes strategically plan their decisions to leave the bench, with personal, institutional, and partisan factors playing a role.<ref>David N. Atkinson, ''Leaving the Bench'' (University Press of Kansas 1999) ISBN 0-7006-0946-6</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=An Invisible Chief Justice|first=Linda|last=Greenhouse|authorlink=Linda Greenhouse|url=http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/09/09/an-invisible-chief-justice/ |work=The New York Times|date=September 9, 2010|accessdate=2010-09-09|quote=Had [O'Connor] anticipated that the chief justice would not serve out the next Supreme Court term, she told me after his death, she would have delayed her own retirement for a year rather than burden the court with two simultaneous vacancies. [...] Her reason for leaving was that her husband, suffering from Alzheimer's disease, needed her care at home.}}</ref> The fear of mental decline and death often motivates justices to step down. The desire to maximize the Court's strength and legitimacy through one retirement at a time, when the Court is in recess, and during non-presidential election years suggests a concern for institutional health. Finally, especially in recent decades, many justices have timed their departure to coincide with a compatible president holding office to ensure that a like-minded successor would be appointed.<ref>{{cite book
|last=Ward
|first=Artemus
|title= Deciding to Leave: The Politics of Retirement from the United States Supreme Court
|publisher=SUNY Press
|isbn= 978-0-7914-5651-4
|year=2003
|pages=358
|url= http://www.sunypress.edu/p-3721-deciding-to-leave.aspx
|quote=One byproduct of the increased [retirement benefit] provisions [in 1954], however has been a dramatic rise in the number of justices engaging in succession politics by trying to time their departures to coincide with a compatible president. The most recent departures have been partisan, some more blatantly than others, and have bolstered arguments to reform the process. A second byproduct has been an increase in justices staying on the Court past their ability to adequately contribute. [http://www.sunypress.edu/pdf/60710.pdf] p. 9}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal
|last1= Stolzenberg
|first1=Ross M.
|last2= Lindgren
|first2=James
|title= Retirement and Death in Office of U.S. Supreme Court Justices
|journal= Demography
|year= 2010
|month= May
|volume= 47
|issue=2
|pages= 269–298
|doi=10.1353/dem.0.0100
|quote=If the incumbent president is of the same party as the president who nominated the justice to the Court, and if the incumbent president is in the first two years of a four-year presidential term, then the justice has odds of resignation that are about 2.6 times higher than when these two conditions are not met.
|pmc=3000028
|pmid= 20608097}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
|-
!Name
!Born
!Appt. by
!Retired under
!Conf. vote
!Age at appt.
!First day
!Date of retirement
|-
| [[File:John Paul Stevens official SCOTUS portrait crop.jpg|100px|Stevens]]
'''[[John Paul Stevens]]'''
|{{dts|1920|4|20}}<br/>(age {{age nts|1920|4|20}})<br/>in [[Chicago]], [[Illinois]]
|[[Gerald Ford]]
|[[Barack Obama]]
|98–0
|55
|December 19, 1975
|June 29, 2010
|-
| [[File:Sandra Day O'Connor.jpg|100px|O'Connor]]
'''[[Sandra Day O'Connor]]'''
|{{dts|1930|3|26}}<br/>(age {{age nts|1930|3|26}})<br/>in [[El Paso]], [[Texas]]
|[[Ronald Reagan]]
|[[George W. Bush]]
|99–0
|51
|September 25, 1981
|January 31, 2006
|-
| [[File:DavidSouter.jpg|100px|Souter]]
'''[[David Souter]]'''
| {{dts|1939|9|17}}<br/>(age {{age nts|1939|9|17}})<br/>in [[Melrose, Massachusetts]]
| [[George H. W. Bush]]
| [[Barack Obama]]
| 90–9
| 51
|{{dts|1990|10|9}}
|June 29, 2009
|}
 
==Mga sanggunian==
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