Pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng mga pagbago ng "COVID-19"

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Inihalintulad sa bersyong Ingles (Hindi pa tapos ang pagsasalinwika).
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(Inihalintulad sa bersyong Ingles (Hindi pa tapos ang pagsasalinwika).)
{{short description|Nakakahawang sakit sa paghinga na unang nadiskubre noong 2019}}
{{Infobox medical condition (new)
| name = ''Coronavirus disease 2019''<br />(COVID-19)
| synonyms =
*''2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease''
}}
 
Ang '''COVID-19''' ('''''coronavirus disease 2019'''''),<ref>{{cite report|url=https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200211-sitrep-22-ncov.pdf|title=Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 22|last=|first=|date=February 11, 2020|publisher=[[World Health Organization]]|issue=|doi=|volume=|pmid=|access-date=|vauthors=((World Health Organization))|year=}}</ref> na dating kilala bilang '''''2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease''''', ay isang nakakahawang sakit dulot ng [[SARS-CoV-2]], isang birus na may kaugnayan sa [[Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus|SARS-CoV]].<ref name="autogenerated2">{{Cite journal|last=Gorbalenya|first=Alexander E.|date=2020-02-11|title=Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group|url=https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.07.937862v1|journal=bioRxiv|language=en|pages=2020.02.07.937862|doi=10.1101/2020.02.07.937862|access-date=11 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200211175138/https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.07.937862v1|archive-date=11 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51466362|title=Coronavirus disease named Covid-19|date=2020-02-11|work=[[BBC News]]|access-date=2020-02-11|language=en-GB|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200211162411/https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51466362|archive-date=11 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Naitala ang mga unang kaso nito sa [[Wuhan]], kabisera ng [[Hubei|lalawigan ng Hubei]], sa [[Tsina]] noong Disyembre 2019, at mula noon ay kumalat sa buong mundo, na humantong sa nagpapatuloy na [[Pandemya ng coronavirus ng 2019–20|pandemya ng coronaviruskoronabirus 2019–20]].<ref name="Hui14Jan2020">{{cite journal|author-last1=Hui|author-last10=Drosten|doi=10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009|pmid=31953166|pages=264–66|issue=|volume=91|date=February 2020|journal=Int J Infect Dis|title=The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health—The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China|author-first12=E.|author-last12=Petersen|author-first11=A.|author-last11=Zumla|author-link10=Christian Drosten|author-first10=Christian|author-first9=Z. A.|author-first1=D. S.|author-last9=Memish|author-first8=T. D.|author-last8=Mchugh|author-first7=G.|author-last7=Ippolito|author-first6=O.|author-last6=Dar|author-first5=R.|author-last5=Kock|author-first4=F.|author-last4=Ntoumi|author-first3=T. A.|author-last3=Madani|author2=I. Azhar E.|doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name="WHOPandemic">{{cite press release|title=WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19|website=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO)|date=11 March 2020|url=https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020|access-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Kabilang sa mga [[sintomas]] nito ang [[lagnat]], [[ubo]], at [[pangangapos ng hinihinga]].<ref name="CDCSym" /> Kabilang sa mga iba pang sintomas ang [[Myalgia|kirot sa kalamnan]], [[Sputum|pag-uuhog]], [[pagtatae]], [[pamamaga ng lalamunan]], [[Loss of smell|pagkawala ng pang-amoy]], at sakit sa tiyan.<ref name="CDC2020Sym" /><ref name="whoqa">{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses|title=Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)|url-status=live|access-date=11 March 2020|publisher=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO)}}</ref><ref name="entuk-anosmia">{{cite web|url=https://www.entuk.org/loss-sense-smell-marker-covid-19-infection|title=Loss of sense of smell as marker of COVID-19 infection|last=Hopkins|first=Claire|date=|website=Ear, Nose and Throat surgery body of United Kingdom|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=|accessdate=2020-03-28}}</ref> Habang nagreresulta ang karahiman ng kaso sa mga di-malubhang sintomas, maaaring humantong ang ilan sa [[pulmonya]] at [[Multi-organ failure|pagkasira ng iilang sangkap]].<ref name="Hui14Jan2020" /><ref name="WHO-q-a">{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses|title=Q&A on coronaviruses|website=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO)|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200120174649/https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses|archive-date=20 January 2020|access-date=27 January 2020|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref> Noong pagsapit ng {{Cases in 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic|date|editlink=|ref=no}}, higit sa {{Cases in 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic|conround|editlink=|ref=no}} kaso ng COVID-19 ay naitala sa higit sa 200 bansa at teritoryo, na nagresulta sa kamatayan ng humigit-kumulang sa {{Cases in 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic|dround|editlink=|ref=no}}.<ref name="WOM2">{{cite web|title=Coronavirus Update (Live): 935,957 Cases and 47,245 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Outbreak - Worldometer|url=https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/|website=www.worldometers.info|accessdate=2 April 2020|language=en}}</ref> Higit sa {{Cases in 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic|recround|editlink=|ref=no}} katao ang gumaling na.<ref name="WOM2" />
 
Karaniwang naipapasa ang sakit sa malapitang pakikitungo at sa pamamagitan ng mga [[Respiratory droplet|pahingahahang patak]] kapag [[Ubo|umuubo]] o bumabahing.<ref name="CDCTrans">{{cite web|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—Transmission|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/transmission.html|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|accessdate=23 March 2020|language=en-us|date=17 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="WHO2020QA">{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses|title=Q&A on coronaviruses|work=[[World Health Organization]]|date=11 February 2020|access-date=24 February 2020}}</ref> Maaaring magkaroon ng mga patak-patak habang humihinga ngunit sa pangkalahatan, hindi [[Airborne disease|dinadala ng hangin]] ang virusbirus.<ref name="WHO2020QA2">{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses|title=Q&A on coronaviruses|work=[[World Health Organization]]|date=11 February 2020|access-date=24 February 2020}}</ref><ref name="ECDCQA" /> Maaari ring mahawa rin ang mga tao kung hinawakan nila ang kontaminadong bagay at pagkatapos, ang kanilang mukha.<ref name="WHO2020QA2" /><ref name="CDCTrans2">{{cite web|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—Transmission|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/transmission.html|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|accessdate=23 March 2020|language=en-us|date=17 March 2020}}</ref> Pinakanakahahawa ito kapag sintomatiko ang mga tao, ngunit maaaring maghawa bago lumitaw ang mga sintomas.<ref name="CDCTrans2" /> Maaaring mabuhay ang virusbirus sa mga ibabaw nang hanggang 72 oras.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/new-coronavirus-stable-hours-surfaces|access-date=23 March 2020|title=New coronavirus stable for hours on surfaces|date=17 March 2020|publisher=[[National Institutes of Health]]}}</ref> Ang panahon bago umepekto ang sakit ay karaniwang dalawa hanggang labing-apat na araw, na may katamtamang limang araw.<ref name="CDCSym">{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms.html|title=Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)|date=10 February 2020|website=www.cdc.gov|access-date=11 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200130202038/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms.html|archive-date=30 January 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|author-last1=Velavan|author-first1=T. P.|author-last2=Meyer|author-first2=C. G.|title=The COVID-19 epidemic|journal=Tropical Medicine & International Health|volume=n/a|issue=n/a|pages=278–80|doi=10.1111/tmi.13383|doi-access=free|pmid=32052514|date=March 2020}}</ref> Ang pamantayang pamamaraan ng [[Diagnosis|pagsusuri]] ay sa pamamagitan ng [[Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction|''reversebaligtaring transcriptionpagsasalin polymeraseng chainpatanikalang reaction''tambisa ng polymerase]] (rRT-PCR) mula sa [[Nasopharyngeal swab|''nasopharyngeal''pamahid nasa pamahidnasoparinks]].<ref name="CDC2020Testing">{{cite web|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/guidelines-clinical-specimens.html|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|accessdate=26 March 2020|language=en-us|date=11 February 2020}}</ref> Maaari ring suriin ang impeksyon mula sa kombinasyon ng mga sintomas, [[Risk factor|salik ng panganib]] at isang [[CT scan|''CT scan'']] ng dibdib na nagpapakita ng mga katangian ng pulmonya.<ref name=":3">{{cite journal | vauthors=Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, Cheng H, Deng T, Fan YP, Fang C, Huang D, Huang LQ, Huang Q, Han Y, Hu B, Hu F, Li BH, Li YR, Liang K, Lin LK, Luo LS, Ma J, Ma LL, Peng ZY, Pan YB, Pan ZY, Ren XQ, Sun HM, Wang Y, Wang YY, Weng H, Wei CJ, Wu DF, Xia J, Xiong Y, Xu HB, Yao XM, Yuan YF, Ye TS, Zhang XC, Zhang YW, Zhang YG, Zhang HM, Zhao Y, Zhao MJ, Zi H, Zeng XT, Wang YY, Wang XH | display-authors=6 | title=A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version) | journal=Military Medical Research | date=February 2020 | volume=7 | issue=1 | page=4 | doi=10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6 | doi-access=free | pmid=32029004 | pmc=7003341 }}</ref><ref name=":4">{{cite web|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/02/200226151951.htm|title=CT provides best diagnosis for COVID-19|date=26 February 2020|website=ScienceDaily|url-status=live|access-date=2 March 2020}}</ref>
 
Kabilang sa mga inirerekumendang hakbang upang maiwasan ang pagkahawa ay madalas na [[Hand washing|paghuhugas ng kamay]], [[panlipunang pagpapalayo]] (pagpapanatili ng pisikal na distansya mula sa ibang tao, lalo na sa mga may sintomas), pagtatakip ng mga ubo at bahing ng tisyu o panloob na siko, at paglayo ng maruming kamay mula sa mukha.<ref name="Advice for public">{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public|title=Advice for public|website=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO)|access-date=25 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200126025750/https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public|archive-date=26 January 2020|url-status=live|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-guidance-on-social-distancing-and-for-vulnerable-people/guidance-on-social-distancing-for-everyone-in-the-uk-and-protecting-older-people-and-vulnerable-adults|title=Guidance on social distancing for everyone in the UK|website=GOV.UK|language=en|access-date=25 March 2020}}</ref> Inirerekumenda ang paggamit ng mga [[Masks|mask]] sa mga nagsususpetsa na may virusbirus sila at sa kanilang tagapag-alaga.<ref name="CDC2020IfSick">{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/steps-when-sick.html|title=2019&nbsp;Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)|author=CDC|date=11 February 2020|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200214153016/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/steps-when-sick.html|archive-date=14 February 2020|access-date=15 February 2020|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref> Nagkakaiba-iba ang mga rekomendasyon sa paggamit ng mask ng publiko. Hindi nirerekumenda ng iilan ang kanilang paggamit, nirerekumenda naman ng iilan ang paggamit, at inaatas ng mga iba pa ang paggamit.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Feng|first6=Benjamin J.|issn=2213-2600|doi=10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X|volume=0|language=English|journal=The Lancet Respiratory Medicine|url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30134-X/abstract|title=Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic|date=2020-03-20|last6=Cowling|first=Shuo|first5=Mengzhen|last5=Fan|first4=Wei|last4=Song|first3=Nan|last3=Xia|first2=Chen|last2=Shen|pmid=32203710}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=When and how to use masks|url=https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/when-and-how-to-use-masks|website=www.who.int|accessdate=31 March 2020|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Tait|first=Robert|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/30/czechs-get-to-work-making-masks-after-government-decree-coronavirus|title=Czechs get to work making masks after government decree|date=2020-03-30|work=The Guardian|access-date=2020-03-31|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}}</ref> Sa kasalukuyan, wala pang mga [[bakuna]] o tiyak na [[Antiviral treatment|gamot panlaban sa virusbirus]] para sa COVID-19. Kasali sa pangangasiwa nito ang [[Palliative care|paggamot ng mga sintomas]], [[Supportive care|pag-aalalay]], [[Isolation (health care)|pagbubukod]], at [[Medical research|eksperimentong pamamaraan]].<ref name="cdc21Jan202022">{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)|date=15 February 2020|publisher=[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] (CDC)|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200226145347/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html|archive-date=26 February 2020|access-date=20 February 2020|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref>
 
Noong 30 Enero 2020, indineklara ng [[Pandaigdigang Organisasyon sa Kalusugan]] (WHO) ang [[pagkalat ng koronabirus ng 2019–20]] bilang isang [[Public Health Emergency of International Concern|''PublicPampublikong HealthEmerhensya Emergencysa ofKalusugan Internationalng Concern''Pandaigdigang Ikinababahala]] (PHEIC)<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)|title=Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)|website=www.who.int|language=en|access-date=2020-02-11|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200131005904/https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)|archive-date=31 January 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/coronavirus-china-live-updates/2020/02/05/114ced8a-479c-11ea-bc78-8a18f7afcee7_story.html|title=Hundreds of evacuees to be held on bases in California; Hong Kong and Taiwan restrict travel from mainland China - The Washington Post<!-- Bot generated title -->|access-date=11 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200207134650/https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/coronavirus-china-live-updates/2020/02/05/114ced8a-479c-11ea-bc78-8a18f7afcee7_story.html|archive-date=7 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> at bilang [[pandemya]] noong 11 Marso 2020.<ref name="WHOPandemic" /> Naitala ang [[Local transmission|lokal na transmisyon]] ng sakit sa maraming bansa sa lahat ng anim na [[WHO regions|rehiyon ng WHO]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200325-sitrep-65-covid-19.pdf|title=WHO Situation Report #65|last=|first=|date=25 March 2020|website=WHO|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=}}</ref>
 
== Palatandaan at sintomas ==
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Ang mga nahawa ng virusbirus ay maaaring [[Asymptomatic carrier|asintomatiko]] o magkaroon ng mga [[Influenza-like illness|malatrangkaso na sintomas]], kasama ang lagnat, ubo, pagkapagod, at pangangapos ng hinihinga.<ref name="CDC2020Sym">{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms.html|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Symptoms|date=10 February 2020|website=[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]|location=United States|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200130202038/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms.html|archive-date=30 January 2020|access-date=|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref><ref name=":2">{{cite journal|author-last1=Chen|title=Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study|author-last12=Yu|author-first12=T.|author-last13=Zhang|author-first13=X.|author-last14=Zhang|author-first14=L.|language=English|author-last11=Xia|journal=Lancet|volume=395|issue=10223|pages=507–513|date=February 2020|pmid=32007143|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7|author-first11=J.|author-first10=Y.|author-first1=N.|author-first5=F.|author-last2=Zhou|author-first2=M.|author-last3=Dong|author-first3=X.|author-last4=Qu|author-first4=J.|author-last5=Gong|author-last6=Han|author-last10=Wei|author-first6=Y.|author-last7=Qiu|author-first7=Y.|author-last8=Wang|author-first8=J.|author-last9=Liu|author-first9=Y.|doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name="Hessen27Jan2020">{{cite web|url=https://www.elsevier.com/connect/coronavirus-information-center|title=Novel Coronavirus Information Center: Expert guidance and commentary|last=Hessen|first=Margaret Trexler|name-list-format=vanc|date=27 January 2020|website=Elsevier Connect|url-status=live|access-date=31 January 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200130171622/https://www.elsevier.com/connect/coronavirus-information-center|archive-date=30 January 2020}}</ref> Kabilang sa mga kagipitang sintomas ang paghihirap sa paghinga, paulit-ulit na sakit o panggigipit sa dibdib, pagkalito, nahihirapang gumising, at mangasul-ngasul na mukha o labi; kailangan magpatingin agad sa doktor kung lumitaw ang ganitong mga sintomas.<ref>{{cite web|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—Symptoms|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|access-date=21 March 2020|language=en-us|date=20 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200320231801/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html|archive-date=20 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Maaari ring magkaroon ng sintomas sa [[Upper respiratory|gawing itaas ng palahingahan]], tulad ng [[Sneeze|pagbahing]], [[Rhinorrhoea|sipon]], o [[pamamaga ng lalamunan]] ngunit mas bihira ang mga ganito. Naobserbahan din ang mga sintomas tulad ng [[nausea]], [[Vomiting|pagsusuka]], at [[pagtatae]] sa mga iba't ibang porsyento.<ref name=":102" /><ref name="Huang24Jan2020">{{cite journal|vauthors=Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, Fan G, Xu J, Gu X, Cheng Z, Yu T, Xia J, Wei Y, Wu W, Xie X, Yin W, Li H, Liu M, Xiao Y, Gao H, Guo L, Xie J, Wang G, Jiang R, Gao Z, Jin Q, Wang J, Cao B|display-authors=6|title=Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China|journal=Lancet|volume=395|issue=10223|pages=497–506|date=February 2020|pmid=31986264|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5|doi-access=free}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Lai|title=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges|pmid=32081636|doi=10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924|page=105924|issue=3|volume=55|language=en|journal=International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents|date=1 March 2020|first1=Chih-Cheng|first5=Po-Ren|last5=Hsueh|first4=Hung-Jen|last4=Tang|first3=Wen-Chien|last3=Ko|first2=Tzu-Ping|last2=Shih|issn=0924-8579}}</ref> Ang mga ilang kaso sa Tsina ay nagpakita sa una na may [[Chest pain|paninikip ng dibdib]] at [[Palpitations|pagtitibok]] lamang.<ref name="Zheng Ma Zhang Xie p.">{{cite journal|vauthors=Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X|title=COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system|journal=Nature Reviews. Cardiology|date=March 2020|pmid=32139904|doi=10.1038/s41569-020-0360-5|doi-access=free}}</ref> Noong Marso 2020 nagkaroon ng mga ulat na nagpahayag na ang [[Anosmia|pagkawala ng pang-amoy]] (''anosmia'') ay maaaring karaniwang sintomas sa mga may di-malubhang sakit,<ref name="entuk-anosmia3" /><ref name="Iacobucci20202" /> ngunit hindi ito ganoong karniwan tulad noong unang iniulat.<ref name="Palus2" /> Sa mga ilan, maaaring lumala ang sakit tungo sa [[pulmonya]], [[Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome|pagkasira ng iilang sangkap]], at [[kamatayan]].<ref name="Hui14Jan2020" /><ref name="WHO-q-a" /> Sa mga nagkakaroon ng mga matitinding sintomas, ang oras mula sa simula ng sintomas patungo sa pangangailangan ng de-makinang bentilasyon ay karaniwang walong araw.<ref>{{cite web|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|language=en-us|date=11 February 2020|access-date=26 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200302201644/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html|archive-date=2 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
Gaya ng pangkaraniwan sa mga impeksyon, mayroong pagkaantala mula sa sandaling mahawahan ang tao ng virusbirus hanggang sa oras na nagkakaroon sila ng sintomas. Tinatawag itong [[Incubation period|yugto ng inkubasyon]]. Karaniwang lima hanggang anim na araw ang yugto ng inkubasyon para sa COVID-19, ngunit maaari itong nasa pagitan ng dalawa hanggang labing-apat na araw.<ref>{{Cite document|vauthors=((World Health Organization))|title=Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation report, 29|date=19 February 2020|website=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO)|hdl=10665/331118|hdl-access=free}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses|title=Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19): How long is the incubation period for COVID-19?|date=|website=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO)|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200120174649/https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses|archive-date=20 January 2020|access-date=26 February 2020|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref> 97.5% ng mga nagkakaroon ng sintomas ay magkakaroon nito sa loob ng 11.5 araw ng pagkahawa.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Lauer|last9=Lessler|archive-date=24 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200324032020/https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2762808/incubation-period-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-from-publicly-reported|access-date=24 March 2020|issn=0003-4819|pmc=7081172|pmid=32150748|doi=10.7326/M20-0504|language=en|journal=Annals of Internal Medicine|url=https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2762808/incubation-period-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-from-publicly-reported|title=The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application|date=10 March 2020|first9=Justin|first8=Nicholas G.|first1=Stephen A.|last8=Reich|first7=Andrew S.|last7=Azman|first6=Hannah R.|last6=Meredith|first5=Qulu|last5=Zheng|first4=Forrest K.|last4=Jones|first3=Qifang|last3=Bi|first2=Kyra H.|last2=Grantz|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
Ipinapahayag ng mga ulat na hindi lahat ng mga nahawa ay nagkakaroon ng mga sintomas, ngunit hindi alam ang kanilang papel sa pagkakalat.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)|last=CDC|date=2020-02-11|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|language=en-us|access-date=2020-03-31|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200214023335/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html|archive-date=14 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Iminumungkahi ng pangunang ebidensya na maaaring mag-ambag ang mga asintomatikong kaso sa pagkalat ng sakit.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Bai|date=2020-02-21|archive-date=4 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200304210815/https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762028|access-date=8 March 2020|pmid=32083643|pmc=7042844|issn=0098-7484|doi=10.1001/jama.2020.2565|language=en|journal=JAMA|url=https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762028|title=Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19|first7=Meiyun|first=Yan|last7=Wang|first6=Lijuan|last6=Chen|first5=Dong-Yan|last5=Jin|first4=Fei|last4=Tian|first3=Tao|last3=Wei|first2=Lingsheng|last2=Yao|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=":1">{{Cite web|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-31/china-reveals-1-541-symptom-free-virus-cases-under-pressure|title=China Reveals 1,541 Symptom-Free Virus Cases Under Pressure|last=|first=|date=31 March 2020|website=www.bloomberg.com|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2020-03-31}}</ref> Hindi alam at pinag-aaralan pa ang hagway ng nahawang tao na hindi nagpapakita ng sintomas sa kasalukuyan. Iniulat ng CDC ng Timog Korea na 20% ng lahat ng kumpirmadong kaso ay nanatiling asintomatiko noong panahon ng pamamalagi sa ospital.<ref name=":1" /><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.ktv.go.kr/program/home/PG1110921D/content/595426|title=코로나19 국내 발생현황 브리핑 (20. 03. 16. 14시)|website=ktv.go.kr|language=ko|access-date=2020-03-31}}</ref>
Pinag-aaralan pa rin ang iilang detalye kung paano [[transmission (medicine)|kumakalat]] ang sakit.<ref name="ECDCQA" /><ref name="CDCTrans" /><!-- Quote=We are still learning how it spreads --> Sinabi ng WHO at CDC na pangunahin nang naikakalat ito tuwing malapit na kaugnayan at sa pamamagitan ng [[Respiratory droplet|palahingahang patak]] mula sa [[Ubo|pag-ubo]] at [[Sneeze|pagbahing]];<ref name=WHO2020QA/><ref name=CDCTrans/><!-- The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person ... Between people who are in close contact with one another ... Via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. --><!-- Quote=The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing. --> at binibigyang-kahulugan ang malapit na kaugnayan bilang nasa pagitan ng 1{{nbsp}}hanggang 2{{nbsp}}metro (3 to 6{{nbsp}}talampakan).<ref name=WHO2020QA/><!-- This is why it is important to stay more than a meter (3 feet) away from a person who is sick. --> Natuklasan ng isang pagsusuri sa Singgapura na maaaring humantong ang ubo na hindi tinakpan sa paglalakbay ng mga patak ng hanggang 4.5 metro (15 talampakan).<ref>{{cite journal |display-authors=etal |last1=Loh |first1=Ne-Hooi Will |last2=Tan |first2=Yanni |last3=Taculod |first3=Juvel H. |title=The Impact of High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) on Coughing Distance: Implications on Its Use During the Novel Coronavirus Disease Outbreak |journal=Canadian Journal of Anesthesia |date=18 March 2020 |doi=10.1007/s12630-020-01634-3 |pmid=32189218 |pmc=7090637}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Bourouiba|first1=Lydia|title=Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19|journal=JAMA|date=26 March 2020 |pmid = 32215590|doi=10.1001/jama.2020.4756}}</ref>
 
Maaari ring maglabas ng palahingahang patak habang humihinga, pati na rin kapag nagsasalita, ngunit karaniwang hindi[[airborne]] ang virusbirus.<ref name=WHO2020QA/><!-- when a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales ... Studies to date suggest that the virus that causes COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets rather than through the air. --><ref name=WHOMar27Airborne>{{cite web |title=Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations |url=https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations |website=www.who.int |accessdate=29 March 2020 |language=en}}</ref><!-- Based on the available evidence, including the recent publications mentioned above, the WHO continues to recommend droplet and contact precautions for those people caring for COVID-19 patients and contact and airborne precautions for circumstances and settings in which aerosol generating procedures are performed. -->Maaaring lumapag ang mga patak sa mga bibig at ilong ng mga tao na malapit o posibleng malanghap sa mga baga.<ref>{{cite web |title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—Transmission |url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Ftransmission.html |website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |accessdate=29 March 2020 |language=en-us |date=17 March 2020}}</ref><!-- Quote These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. --> Ang mga ilang prosesong medikal tulad ng ''intubation''intubasyon at [[cardiopulmonary resuscitation|''cardiopulmonarypagmamalay-tao resuscitation''sa puso at baga]] (CPR) ay maaaring maging sanhi ng pag-eerosol ng nilalabas ng palahingahan at sa gayon ay magreresulta sa pagkalat sa hangin.<ref name=WHOMar27Airborne/> Maaari ring kumalat ito kapag humahawak ang tao ng kontaminadong bagay at pagkatapos ay hahawak sa kanyang mata, ilong, o bibig.<ref name=WHO2020QA/><!-- These droplets land on objects and surfaces around the person. Other people then catch COVID-19 by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. --> Habang ikinababahala ang posibilidad na kinakalat ito sa [[Fecal–oral route|tae]], pinaniniwalaang mababa ang panganib.<ref name=WHO2020QA/><!-- The risk of catching COVID-19 from the feces of an infected person appears to be low. --><ref name=CDCTrans/><!-- within about six feet -->
 
Pinakanakahahawa ang virusbirus kapag sintomatiko ang mga tao; habang posible ang pagkalat nito bago lumitaw ang mga sintomas, mababa ang panganib.<ref name="CDCTrans" /><!-- Quote = People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest){{nbsp}}... Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms --><ref name="WHO2020QA" /><!-- Quote = The risk of catching COVID-19 from someone with no symptoms at all is very low. --> Sinasabi ng [[European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control|Europeong Sentro sa Pag-iwas at Pagkontrol sa Sakit]] (ECDC) na habang hindi klarong-klaro kung gaano kadali kumalat ang sakit, ang isang tao ay karaniwang nakahahawa sa dalawa o tatlong tao.<ref name="ECDCQA">{{cite web |url=https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/novel-coronavirus-china/questions-answers |title=Q & A on COVID-19 |website=European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control |language=en|access-date=23 March 2020}}</ref>
 
Nananatiling "buhay" ang mga virusbirus sa loob ng maraming oras hanggang araw sa mga ibabaw.<ref name="ECDCQA" /><ref name="CDC2020Surfaces" /><!-- Quote = Current evidence suggests that novel coronavirus may remain viable for hours to days on surfaces made from a variety of materials --> Para maging tiyak, natuklasan na natutunton ang virusbirus nang hanggang tatlong araw sa plastik at aserong di-kinakalawang, nang isang araw sa karton, at hanggang apat na oras sa tanso.<ref name="Stable NIH" /> Gayunpaman, nagkakaiba-iba ito depende sa kahalumigmigan at temperatura.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Moriyama |first1=M |last2=Hugentobler |first2=WJ |last3=Iwasaki |first3=A |title=Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections. |journal=Annual Review of Virology |date=20 March 2020 |volume=7 |doi=10.1146/annurev-virology-012420-022445 |pmid=32196426}}</ref> Maaaring linisin ang mga ibabaw sa pamamagitan ng mga iilang solusyon (sa loob ng pagkahantad nang isang minuto sa des-impektante para sa ibabaw ng aserong di-kinakalawang). Kabilang dito ang 62–71% [[ethanol]], 50–100% [[isopropanol]], 0.1% [[sodium hypochlorite]], 0.5% [[hydrogen peroxide|agua oksihenada]], at 0.2–7.5% [[povidone-iodine]]. Di-gaanong epetiko ang mga ibang solusyon, tulad ng [[benzalkonium chloride]] at [[chlorhexidine|chrohexidine gluconate]].<ref name="GunterTPS_9days_persistence" />
 
=== Birolohiya ===
[[File:Coronavirus virion structure.svg|thumb|Larawan ng ''SARSr-CoV virion'']]
 
Ang ''severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2'' (SARS-CoV-2) ay isang ''[[novel virus|novel]] severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus'', unang ibinukod mula sa tatlong tao na may pulmonya na konektado sa [[Disease cluster|kumpol]] ng kaso ng ''acute respiratory illness'' sa Wuhan.<ref name="ECDC risk assessment" /> Makikita ang lahat ng mga katangian ng novel SARS-CoV-2 virus sa mga kaugnay na coronaviruskoronabirus sa kalikasan.<ref name="hcAdO" />
 
Sa labas ng katawan ng tao, namamatay ang virusbirus sa pamamagitan ng [[soap|sabon]], na nagpapaputok sa bulang pamprotekta ng virusbirus.<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Salehi|first=Sana|last2=Abedi|first2=Aidin|last3=Balakrishnan|first3=Sudheer|last4=Gholamrezanezhad|first4=Ali|date=2020-03-14|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Imaging Findings in 919 Patients|journal=American Journal of Roentgenology|language=en|pages=1–7|doi=10.2214/AJR.20.23034|issn=0361-803X|pmid=32174129}}</ref>
 
Tila may kaugnayan ang SARS-CoV-2 sa orihinal na SARS-CoV.<ref name="Zhu24Jan2020" /> Ipinapalagay na nanggaling ito sa [[Zoonosis|hayop]]. Isinisiwalat ng pag-aanalisang henetiko na karaniwang nagtitipun-tipon ang coronaviruskoronabirus sa genus ''[[Betacoronavirus]]'', sa subgenus [[Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus|''Sarbecovirus'']] (angkan B) kasama ng dalawang uri na galing-paniki. 96% magkahawig ito at buong antas ng [[genome]] sa mga ibang sampol ng coronaviruskoronabirus sa paniki (BatCov RaTG13).<ref name="WHO report 28 February 2020" /><ref name="bioRxivBatOrigin" /> Noong Pebrero 2020, natuklasan ng mga Tsinong mananaliksik na isa lamang ang nag-iibang [[asidong amino]] sa mga tiyak na bahagi ng pagkakasunud-sunod ng genome ng mga virusbirus mula sa [[pangolins|pangolin]] at mula sa tao, ngunit natuklasan ng paghahambing ng buong genome sa kasalukuyan na 92% ang pinakamalaking porsyento ng ibinabahaging henetikong materyal sa pagitan ng coronaviruskoronabirus sa pangolin at SARS-CoV-2, na kulang upang patunayan na ang mga pangolin ay [[intermediate host|kalagitnaang biktima]].<ref name="ia56U" />
 
== Patopisyolohiya ==
Pinaapektado ang mga baga sa COVID-19 dahil ang mga pinapasukan ang mga selulangbiktimang biktimasihay sa pamamagitan ng ensimang [[Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2|ACE2]], na pinakasana sa mga [[Type II cell|ika-2 uri ng selulang supot-hangin]] ng mga baga. Gumagamit ang virusbirus ng natatanging ''surface glycoprotein'' na tinatawag na ''"spike"'' ([[Peplomer|''peplomer'']]) upang kumonekta sa ACE2 at pumasok sa selulangbiktimang biktimasihay.<ref name="Nature Microbiology">{{cite journal|title=Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses|journal=Nature Microbiology|doi=10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y|doi-access=free|pmid=32094589|date=2020|vauthors=Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V|volume=5|issue=4|pages=562–569}}</ref> Nauugnay ang densidad ng ACE2 sa bawat tisyu sa kalubhaan ng sakit sa tisyung iyon at iminungkahi ng ilan na maaaring makaprotekta ang pagbawas sa aktibidad ng ACE2,<ref name="Zhang Penninger Li Zhong p.">{{cite journal|vauthors=Zhang H, Penninger JM, Li Y, Zhong N, Slutsky AS|title=Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target|journal=Intensive Care Medicine|date=March 2020|volume=46|issue=4|pages=586–590|doi=10.1007/s00134-020-05985-9|doi-access=free|pmid=32125455|pmc=7079879}}</ref><ref name="Xu Zhong Deng Peng p.">{{cite journal|vauthors=Xu H, Zhong L, Deng J, Peng J, Dan H, Zeng X, Li T, Chen Q|display-authors=6|title=High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa|journal=International Journal of Oral Science|volume=12|issue=1|page=8|date=February 2020|doi=10.1038/s41368-020-0074-x|doi-access=free|pmid=32094336|pmc=7039956}}</ref> ngunit ang isa pang pananaw ay maaaring makapoprotekta ang pagtaas ng ACE2 gamit ang mga ''[[angiotensin II receptor blocker]] medication'' at kailangang subukin ang mga ganitong palagay .<ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Gurwitz D|title=Angiotensin receptor blockers as tentative SARS‐CoV‐2 therapeutics|journal=Drug Development Research|doi=10.1002/ddr.21656|doi-access=free|pmid=32129518|date=March 2020}}</ref> Habang kumakalat ang sakit sa supot-hangin, maaaring magkaroon ng paghinto ng palahingahan at sumunod ang kamatayan.<ref name="Xu Zhong Deng Peng p." />
 
Nakaaapekto rin ang virusbirus sa mga sangkap ng sikmura at bituka dahil saganang ipinapahayag ang ACE2 sa mga [[Glandula|glandulang]] selula ng [[Epithelium|epitelyo]] sa [[sikmura]], [[tokong]], [[tumbong]]<ref name=":11">{{Cite journal|last1=Gu|first1=Jinyang|last2=Han|first2=Bing|last3=Wang|first3=Jian|date=27 February 2020|title=COVID-19: Gastrointestinal manifestations and potential fecal-oral transmission|journal=Gastroenterology|volume=|pages=|doi=10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.054|pmid=32142785|issn=0016-5085}}</ref> pati na rin sa mga selulang [[Endothelium|endotelyal]] at [[Enterocyte|enterosito]] ng [[maliit na bituka]].<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Hamming|date=2004|pmid=15141377|doi=10.1002/path.1570|pages=631–637|issue=2|volume=203|language=en|journal=The Journal of Pathology|title=Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis|first6=H. van|first1=I.|last6=Goor|first5=G. J.|last5=Navis|first4=A. T.|last4=Lely|first3=M. L. C.|last3=Bulthuis|first2=W.|last2=Timens|issn=1096-9896}}</ref>
 
== Pagririkonosi ==
[[Talaksan:CDC_2019-nCoV_Laboratory_Test_Kit.jpg|thumb|CDC [[rRT-PCR]] na kagamitang pansuri para sa COVID-19<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/testing.html|title=CDC Tests for 2019-nCoV|author=CDC|date=5 February 2020|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200214023335/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/testing.html|archive-date=14 February 2020|access-date=12 February 2020|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref>]]
Inilathala ng [[World Health Organization|WHO]] ang iilang protokol sa pagsusuri ng sakit.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/publications-detail/laboratory-testing-for-2019-novel-coronavirus-in-suspected-human-cases-20200117|title=Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases|website=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO)|access-date=13 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200317023052/https://www.who.int/publications-detail/laboratory-testing-for-2019-novel-coronavirus-in-suspected-human-cases-20200117|archive-date=17 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Ang pamantayang pamaraan ng pagsusuri ay ang totoong oras na [[rRT-PCR]].<ref name="20200130cdc">{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/summary.html|title=2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Summary|date=30 January 2020|website=[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200126210549/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/summary.html|archive-date=26 January 2020|access-date=30 January 2020|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref> Karaniwang sinusuri ang mga sampol mula sa palahingahan na nakuha ng [[Nasopharyngeal swab|pamahid sa nasoparinks]], ngunit maaaring gamitin ang pamahid sa ilong o sampol ng [[Sputum|uhog]].<ref name="CDC2020Testing2" /><ref name="20200129cdc">{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/rt-pcr-detection-instructions.html|title=Real-Time RT-PCR Panel for Detection 2019-nCoV|date=29 January 2020|website=[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]|access-date=1 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200130202031/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/rt-pcr-detection-instructions.html|archive-date=30 January 2020|url-status=live|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref> Makukuha dapat ang mga resulta sa loob ng iilang oras hanggang dalawang araw.<ref name="globenewswire1977226">{{cite web|url=https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/01/30/1977226/0/en/Curetis-Group-Company-Ares-Genetics-and-BGI-Group-Collaborate-to-Offer-Next-Generation-Sequencing-and-PCR-based-Coronavirus-2019-nCoV-Testing-in-Europe.html|title=Curetis Group Company Ares Genetics and BGI Group Collaborate to Offer Next-Generation Sequencing and PCR-based Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Testing in Europe|date=30 January 2020|website=GlobeNewswire News Room|access-date=1 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200131201626/https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/01/30/1977226/0/en/Curetis-Group-Company-Ares-Genetics-and-BGI-Group-Collaborate-to-Offer-Next-Generation-Sequencing-and-PCR-based-Coronavirus-2019-nCoV-Testing-in-Europe.html|archive-date=31 January 2020|url-status=live|name-list-format=vanc}}</ref><ref name="20200130businessinsider">{{cite web|url=https://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-know-if-you-have-the-coronavirus-pcr-test-2020-1|title=There's only one way to know if you have the coronavirus, and it involves machines full of spit and mucus|last=Brueck|first=Hilary|name-list-format=vanc|date=30 January 2020|website=Business Insider|access-date=1 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200201034232/https://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-know-if-you-have-the-coronavirus-pcr-test-2020-1|archive-date=1 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Maaaring suriin ang dugo, ngunit kailangan ng dalawang sampol ng dugo na kukunin sa pagitan ng dalawang linggo at halos walang agarang silbi ang mga resulta.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/publications-detail/laboratory-testing-for-2019-novel-coronavirus-in-suspected-human-cases-20200117|title=Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases|access-date=26 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200221192745/https://www.who.int/publications-detail/laboratory-testing-for-2019-novel-coronavirus-in-suspected-human-cases-20200117|archive-date=21 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Nakabukod ang mga Tsinong dalub-agham ng isang uri ng koronabirus at nakalathala ng [[Nucleic acid sequence|henetikong pagkakasunud-sunod]] para makabuo nang nakapag-iisa ang mga laboratoryo sa buong mundo ng mga pagsusuring [[Polymerase chain reaction|patanikalang tambisa ng polymerase]] ''(PCR)'' upang matunton ang impeksyon ng birus.<ref name="Hui14Jan20202" /><ref name="Cohen17Jan20202">{{cite journal|vauthors=Cohen J, Normile D|title=New SARS-like virus in China triggers alarm|journal=Science|volume=367|issue=6475|pages=234–35|date=January 2020|pmid=31949058|doi=10.1126/science.367.6475.234|bibcode=2020Sci...367..234C|url=https://mcb.uconn.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2341/2020/01/WuhanScience24Jan2020.pdf|access-date=11 February 2020|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200211230310/https://mcb.uconn.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2341/2020/01/WuhanScience24Jan2020.pdf|archive-date=11 February 2020}}</ref><ref name="ncbiWuhanGenomes">{{cite web|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/virus/vssi/#/virus?SeqType_s=Nucleotide&VirusLineage_ss=Wuhan%20seafood%20market%20pneumonia%20virus,%20taxid:2697049|title=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 data hub|website=NCBI|url-status=live|access-date=4 March 2020|name-list-format=vanc|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200321235550/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/virus/vssi/#/virus?SeqType_s=Nucleotide&VirusLineage_ss=Wuhan%20seafood%20market%20pneumonia%20virus,%20taxid:2697049|archive-date=21 March 2020}}</ref> Noong pagsapit ng 19 Marso 2020,<ref name="Vogel2020">{{cite journal|title=New blood tests for antibodies could show true scale of coronavirus pandemic|last=Vogel|first=Gretchen|journal=Science|date=2020|issn=0036-8075|doi=10.1126/science.abb8028}}</ref> wala pang pagsusuri ng mga antibody ngunit sinisikap na makabuo ng mga ganito sa ngayon.<ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Pang J, Wang MX, Ang IY, Tan SH, Lewis RF, Chen JI, Gutierrez RA, Gwee SX, Chua PE, Yang Q, Ng XY, Yap RK, Tan HY, Teo YY, Tan CC, Cook AR, Yap JC, Hsu LY|display-authors=6|title=Potential Rapid Diagnostics, Vaccine and Therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): A Systematic Review|journal=Journal of Clinical Medicine|volume=9|issue=3|page=623|date=February 2020|pmid=32110875|doi=10.3390/jcm9030623}}</ref> Inapbrubahan ng FDA ang unang [[Point-of-care testing|pagsusuring punto ng pag-aalaga]] noong 21 Marso 2020 para gamitin sa katapusan ng buwang iyon.<ref>{{cite press release|title=Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Issues first Emergency Use Authorization for Point of Care Diagnostic|date=21 March 2020|publisher=FDA|url=https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-issues-first-emergency-use-authorization-point-care-diagnostic|access-date=22 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200321224700/https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-issues-first-emergency-use-authorization-point-care-diagnostic|archive-date=21 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
Iminungkahi ng mga panuntunang pangririkonosi na inilabas ng Ospital ng Zhongnan ng [[Unibersidad ng Wuhan]] ang mga paraan para matunton ang mga impeksyon batay sa mga katangiang klinikal at epidemiyolohikong panganib. Kabilang dito ang pagkilala sa mga taong may hindi bababa sa dalawa ng sumusunod na sintomas bukod sa kasaysayan ng pagbibiyahe papunta sa [[Wuhan]] o pakikipag-ugnayan sa mga ibang nahawang tao: lagnat, katangian ng pulmonya sa larawan, karaniwan o bumabang bilang ng puting sihay-dugo, o bumabang bilang ng [[Lymphocyte|limposayt]].<ref name=":32">{{cite journal|vauthors=Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, Cheng H, Deng T, Fan YP, Fang C, Huang D, Huang LQ, Huang Q, Han Y, Hu B, Hu F, Li BH, Li YR, Liang K, Lin LK, Luo LS, Ma J, Ma LL, Peng ZY, Pan YB, Pan ZY, Ren XQ, Sun HM, Wang Y, Wang YY, Weng H, Wei CJ, Wu DF, Xia J, Xiong Y, Xu HB, Yao XM, Yuan YF, Ye TS, Zhang XC, Zhang YW, Zhang YG, Zhang HM, Zhao Y, Zhao MJ, Zi H, Zeng XT, Wang YY, Wang XH|display-authors=6|title=A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)|journal=Military Medical Research|date=February 2020|volume=7|issue=1|page=4|doi=10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6|doi-access=free|pmid=32029004|pmc=7003341}}</ref>
 
Naghinuha ang isang rebyu noong Marso 2020 na maliit lang ang silbi ng mga [[Chest radiograph|rayos-ekis sa dibdib]] sa mga unang yugto, habang may silbi ang mga CT scan ng dibdib bago pa man ang paglitaw ng mga sintomas.<ref name=":02">{{Cite journal|last=Salehi|first=Sana|last2=Abedi|first2=Aidin|last3=Balakrishnan|first3=Sudheer|last4=Gholamrezanezhad|first4=Ali|date=2020-03-14|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Imaging Findings in 919 Patients|journal=American Journal of Roentgenology|language=en|pages=1–7|doi=10.2214/AJR.20.23034|issn=0361-803X|pmid=32174129}}</ref> Kabilang sa mga karaniwang katangian sa CT ang mga ''bilateral multilobar [[Ground glass opacity|ground-glass opacificity]]'' na may ''peripheral, asymmetric and posterior distribution''.<ref name=":02" /> Nagkakaroon ng [[Pleural cavity|''subpleural dominance'']], [[Crazy paving|''crazy paving'']]{{clarify|date=March 2020}} at [[Pulmonary consolidation|''consolidation'']] habang kumakalat ang sakit.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Lee|volume=0|archive-date=8 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200308143943/https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30134-1/fulltext|accessdate=13 March 2020|pmid=32105641|issn=1473-3099|doi=10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30134-1|pages=384–385|issue=4|language=English|first1=Elaine Y. P.|journal=The Lancet Infectious Diseases|url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30134-1/fulltext|title=COVID-19 pneumonia: what has CT taught us?|date=24 February 2020|first3=Pek-Lan|last3=Khong|first2=Ming-Yen|last2=Ng|url-status=live}}</ref> Noong pagsapit ng Marso 2020, inirerekumenda ng [[American College of Radiology|Amerikanong Kolehiyo ng Paladiglapan]] na "hindi dapat gamitin ang CT upang magpasuri o bilang unang pagsusuri upang irikonosi ang COVID-19".<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.acr.org/Advocacy-and-Economics/ACR-Position-Statements/Recommendations-for-Chest-Radiography-and-CT-for-Suspected-COVID19-Infection|title=ACR Recommendations for the use of Chest Radiography and Computed Tomography (CT) for Suspected COVID-19 Infection|last=|first=|date=2020-03-22|website=American College of Radiology|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200328055813/https://www.acr.org/Advocacy-and-Economics/ACR-Position-Statements/Recommendations-for-Chest-Radiography-and-CT-for-Suspected-COVID19-Infection|archive-date=28 March 2020|access-date=}}</ref><gallery mode="packed" heights="100">
Talaksan:COVID19CT2.webp|Karaniwang pasya ng paglalarawan ng CT
Talaksan:COVID19CT1.webp|Paglalarawan ng CT ng mabilisang baytang-baytang na yugto
</gallery>
 
=== Palasakitan ===
Kaunti lamang ang mayroong datos tungkol sa mikroskopyong sugat at patopisyolohiya ng COVID-19.<ref>[https://jcp.bmj.com/content/early/2020/03/20/jclinpath-2020-206522 Autopsy in suspected COVID-19 cases] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200328202232/https://jcp.bmj.com/content/early/2020/03/20/jclinpath-2020-206522|date=28 March 2020}}, Hanley B et al, J Clin Pathol, {{PMID|32198191}}</ref><ref>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32172546 A pathological report of three COVID-19 cases by minimally invasive autopsies], Yao XH et al., {{PMID|32172546}}</ref> Ang pangunahing palasakitang pasya sa awtopsiya ay:
 
* [[Macroscopic scale|Makroskopiya]]: pamamaga ng [[Pleurisy|pliyura]] at/o [[Pericarditis|perikardyo]], [[Lung consolidation|pagsiksik ng baga]] at [[Pulmonary oedema|pamamanas sa baga]]
* Maoobserbahan ang apat na antas ng kalubhaan ng [[Viral pneumonia|pulmonyang biral]]:
** munting [[pulmonya]]: munting malasuwerong [[Exudate|katas]], munting katas ng [[fibrin]]
** mahinahong pulmonya: [[Pulmonary oedema|pamamanas sa baga]], ''[[pneumocyte]] [[hyperplasia]]'', malaking di-tipikong [[pneumocyte]], [[Inflammation|pamamagang]] interstisyal na may [[Infiltration (medical)|pagtatagos ng]] [[Lymphocytic|lymphocyte]] and pagbubuo ng [[Giant cell|multinukleong dambuhalang sihay]]
** matinding pulmonya: [[Diffuse alveolar damage|nakakalat na pagkasira sa supot-hangin]] (DAD) na may nakakalat na [[Exudates|katas]] ng [[Pulmonary alveolus|supot-hangin]]. Responsable ang nakakalat na DAD sa naoobserbang [[Acute respiratory distress syndrome|sindrom ng matalas na sakit sa palahingahan]] (ARDS) at matinding [[hypoxemia]] sa ganitong sakit.
** gumagaling na pulmonya: [[Healing|organisasyon]] ng mga [[Exudate|katas]] sa [[Pulmonary alveolus|butas ng supot-hangin]], at [[Pulmonary fibrosis|interstisyal na fibrosis sa baga]]
** [[Plasma cell|plasmocytosis]] sa [[Bronchoalveolar lavage|BAL]]<ref>{{Cite journal|title=Exuberant plasmocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage of the first patient requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for SARS-CoV-2 in Europe|first1=Marco|last1=Giani|first2=Davide|last2=Seminati|first3=Alberto|last3=Lucchini|first4=Giuseppe|last4=Foti|first5=Fabio|last5=Pagni|date=16 March 2020|journal=Journal of Thoracic Oncology: Official Publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer|doi=10.1016/j.jtho.2020.03.008|pmid=32194247}}</ref>
* [[Dugo]]: [[Disseminated intravascular coagulation|pamumuo ng dugo sa ugat sa buong katawan]] (DIC) <ref>{{Cite journal|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32212240|title=Disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia|first=David|last=Lillicrap|date=1 April 2020|journal=Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis: JTH|volume=18|issue=4|pages=786–787|via=PubMed|doi=10.1111/jth.14781|pmid=32212240}}</ref>; ''leukoerythroblastic reaction''<ref>{{Cite journal|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32212392|last5=Cohen|doi=10.1002/ajh.25793|via=PubMed|journal=American Journal of Hematology|date=25 March 2020|last7=Graff|first7=John P.|last6=Ku|first6=Nam|first5=Stuart H.|title=Leukoerythroblastic reaction in a patient with COVID-19 infection|last4=Thompson|first4=George R.|last3=Schivo|first3=Michael|last2=Dwyre|first2=Denis M.|last1=Mitra|first1=Anupam|pmid=32212392}}</ref>
* [[Atay]]: ''microvesicular [[steatosis]]''
 
== Pagpipigil ==
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