Pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng mga pagbago ng "COVID-19"

11,194 bytes added ,  5 month ago
Inihalintulad sa bersyong Ingles (Hindi pa tapos ang pagsasalinwika).
m (Isinaayos ang mga sanggunian)
Tatak: 2017 source edit
(Inihalintulad sa bersyong Ingles (Hindi pa tapos ang pagsasalinwika).)
| name = ''Coronavirus disease 2019''<br />(COVID-19)
| synonyms =
* "Coronavirus"
*''2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease''
*''Novel coronavirus pneumonia''<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(20)30211-7.pdf|title=Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study|last=|first=|date=14 February 2020|website=The Lancet|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Han|first=Xiaoyu|last2=Cao|first2=Yukun|last3=Jiang|first3=Nanchuan|last4=Chen|first4=Yan|last5=Alwalid|first5=Osamah|last6=Zhang|first6=Xin|last7=Gu|first7=Jin|last8=Dai|first8=Meng|last9=Liu|first9=Jie|last10=Zhu|first10=Wanyue|last11=Zheng|first11=Chuansheng|title=Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) Progression Course in 17 Discharged Patients: Comparison of Clinical and Thin-Section CT Features During Recovery|url=https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa271/5813539|journal=Clinical Infectious Diseases|language=en|doi=10.1093/cid/ciaa271}}</ref>
*''Novel coronavirus pneumonia''<ref name="NHC2020Name">{{Cite web|url=http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7653p/202002/18c1bb43965a4492907957875de02ae7.shtml|title=国家卫生健康委关于新型冠状病毒肺炎暂命名事宜的通知|last=|first=|date=7 February 2020|website=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=9 February 2020}}</ref>
* ''Wuhan pneumonia''<ref name=TIMEinfo>{{cite news | first = Charlie | last = Campbell | name-list-format = vanc | title = The Wuhan Pneumonia Crisis Highlights the Danger in China's Opaque Way of Doing Things | date = 20 January 2020 | access-date = 13 March 2020 | url = https://time.com/5768230/wuhan-pneumonia-flu-crisis-china-government/ | work = [[Time (magazine)|Time]] }}</ref><ref name=FPinfo>{{cite web | first1 = Daniel | last1 = Lucey | first2 = Annie | last2 = Sparrow | name-list-format = vanc | title = China Deserves Some Credit for Its Handling of the Wuhan Pneumonia | date = 14 January 2020 | access-date = 13 March 2020 | url = https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/01/14/china-response-wuhan-pneumonia-better-sars/ | work = [[Foreign Policy]] }}</ref>
* ''Wuhan coronavirus''
* "Coronavirus" o mga iba pang pangalan para sa [[SARS-CoV-2]]
| image = Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (cropped).png
| width =
[[File:Coronavirus virion structure.svg|thumb|Larawan ng ''SARSr-CoV virion'']]
 
Ang SARS-CoV-2 ay isang ''[[novel virus|novel]] severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus'', unang ibinukod mula sa tatlong tao na may pulmonya na konektado sa [[Disease cluster|kumpol]] ng kaso ng matalas na sakit sa palahingahan sa Wuhan.<ref name="ECDC risk assessment">{{cite web |url=https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/SARS-CoV-2-risk-assessment-14-feb-2020.pdf |title=Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): increased transmission beyond China—fourth update |publisher=European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control |date=14 February 2020 |access-date=8 March 2020}}</ref> Makikita ang lahat ng mga katangian ng novel SARS-CoV-2 virus sa mga kaugnay na koronabirus sa kalikasan.<ref name="NM-20200317">{{cite journal |vauthors=Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF |title=The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2 |url=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0820-9 |date=17 March 2020 |journal=[[Nature Medicine]] |pages=1–3 |doi=10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9 |issn=1546-170X |access-date=18 March 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200318001738/https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0820-9 |archive-date=18 March 2020 |url-status=live }}</ref> Sa labas ng katawan ng tao, namamatay ang birus sa pamamagitan ng [[soap|sabon]], na nagpapaputok sa bulang pamprotekta ng birus.<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Salehi|first=Sana|last2=Abedi|first2=Aidin|last3=Balakrishnan|first3=Sudheer|last4=Gholamrezanezhad|first4=Ali|date=2020-03-14|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Imaging Findings in 919 Patients|journal=American Journal of Roentgenology|language=en|pages=1–7|doi=10.2214/AJR.20.23034|issn=0361-803X|pmid=32174129}}</ref>
 
Sa labas ng katawan ng tao, namamatay ang birus sa pamamagitan ng [[soap|sabon]], na nagpapaputok sa bulang pamprotekta ng birus.<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Salehi|first=Sana|last2=Abedi|first2=Aidin|last3=Balakrishnan|first3=Sudheer|last4=Gholamrezanezhad|first4=Ali|date=2020-03-14|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Imaging Findings in 919 Patients|journal=American Journal of Roentgenology|language=en|pages=1–7|doi=10.2214/AJR.20.23034|issn=0361-803X|pmid=32174129}}</ref>
 
Tila may kaugnayan ang SARS-CoV-2 sa orihinal na SARS-CoV.<ref name="Zhu24Jan2020">{{cite journal |vauthors=Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Zhao X, Huang B, Shi W, Lu R, Niu P, Zhan F, Ma X, Wang D, Xu W, Wu G, Gao GF, Tan W |display-authors=6 |title=A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019 |journal=[[The New England Journal of Medicine]] |volume=382 |issue=8 |pages=727–733 |date=February 2020 |pmid=31978945 |doi=10.1056/NEJMoa2001017}}</ref> Ipinapalagay na nanggaling ito sa [[Zoonosis|hayop]]. Isinisiwalat ng pag-aanalisang henetiko na karaniwang nagtitipun-tipon ang koronabirus sa genus ''[[Betacoronavirus]]'', sa subgenus [[Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus|''Sarbecovirus'']] (angkan B) kasama ng dalawang uri na galing-paniki. 96% magkahawig ito at buong antas ng [[genome]] sa mga ibang sampol ng koronabirus sa paniki (BatCov RaTG13).<ref name="WHOReport24Feb2020" /> Noong Pebrero 2020, natuklasan ng mga Tsinong mananaliksik na isa lamang ang nag-iibang [[asidong amino]] sa mga tiyak na bahagi ng pagkakasunud-sunod ng genome ng mga birus mula sa [[pangolins|pangolin]] at mula sa tao, ngunit natuklasan ng paghahambing ng buong genome sa kasalukuyan na 92% ang pinakamalaking porsyento ng ibinabahaging henetikong materyal sa pagitan ng koronabirus sa pangolin at SARS-CoV-2, na kulang upang patunayan na ang mga pangolin ay [[intermediate host|kalagitnaang biktima]].<ref name="Cyranoski26Feb2020">{{cite journal |title=Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus |journal=Nature |volume=579 |pages=18–19 |date=26 February 2020 |doi=10.1038/d41586-020-00548-w |pmid=32127703 |vauthors=Cyranoski D |issue=7797 |bibcode=2020Natur.579...18C}}</ref>
 
Nakaaapekto rin ang birus sa mga sangkap ng sikmura at bituka dahil saganang ipinapahayag ang ACE2 sa mga [[Glandula|glandulang]] selula ng [[Epithelium|epitelyo]] sa [[sikmura]], [[tokong]], [[tumbong]]<ref name=":11">{{Cite journal|last1=Gu|first1=Jinyang|last2=Han|first2=Bing|last3=Wang|first3=Jian|date=27 February 2020|title=COVID-19: Gastrointestinal manifestations and potential fecal-oral transmission|journal=Gastroenterology|volume=|pages=|doi=10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.054|pmid=32142785|issn=0016-5085}}</ref> pati na rin sa mga selulang [[Endothelium|endotelyal]] at [[Enterocyte|enterosito]] ng [[maliit na bituka]].<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Hamming|date=2004|pmid=15141377|doi=10.1002/path.1570|pages=631–637|issue=2|volume=203|language=en|journal=The Journal of Pathology|title=Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis|first6=H. van|first1=I.|last6=Goor|first5=G. J.|last5=Navis|first4=A. T.|last4=Lely|first3=M. L. C.|last3=Bulthuis|first2=W.|last2=Timens|issn=1096-9896}}</ref>
 
Ang mga lumalkaing bahagi ng mga baga, ang mga [[Pulmonary alveolus|supot-hangin sa palahingahan]], ay naglalaman ng dalawang uri ng kumikilos na sihay. Ang isang sihay, [[Pulmonary alveolus#Type I|uri I]], ay sumisipsip mula sa hangin, yaon ay [[gas exchange|pagpapalit ng hangin]]. Ang isa pa, [[Pulmonary alveolus#Type II|uri II]], ay gumagawa ng mga [[surfactant]] na nagsisilbi upang mapanatiling likido, malinis, malaya sa impeksyon, atbp. ang mga baga. Naghahanap ng paraan ang COVID-19 para pumasok sa uri II sihay na gumagawa ng surfactant, at sinusugpo ito sa pamamagitan ng pagpaparami ng COVID-19 birus sa loob nito. Ang bawat uri II sihay na namamatay dahil sa birus ay nagiging sanhi ng matinding reaksyon sa baga. Umaapaw sa baga ang mga likido, nana, at sangkap ng patay na sihay, na nagiging sanhi ng sakit ng coronavirus sa palahingahan.<ref name="DrVuong">{{cite web|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4J0d59dd-qM |author=Doctor Duc C Vuong, general surgeon in Albuquerque, New Mexico |title=HOW COVID-19 KILLS--I'm a Surgeon--And Why We Can't Save You |publisher=YouTube |date=23 March 2020 |accessdate=5 April 2020 |archiveurl = |archivedate = |url-status=live}}</ref>
 
== Pagririkonosi ==
* [[eye protection|pamprotekta ng mata]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of Eye Protection|date=11 February 2020|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/eye-protection.html|publisher=CDC|access-date=23 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200323173916/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/eye-protection.html|archive-date=23 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
Kapag mayroon, mas mainam ang mga respirador (sa halip ng mga ''facemask'').<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/infection-control/control-recommendations.html|title=Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Settings|author=CDC|date=11 February 2020|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|language=en-us|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200304165907/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/infection-control/control-recommendations.html|archive-date=4 March 2020|access-date=25 March 2020}}</ref> Inaprubahan ang respirador-N95 para sa industriya ngunit binigyang-awtorisasyon ng FDA ang mask para gamitin sa ilalim ng [[Emergency Use Authorization|Awtorisasyon para sa Kagipitang Paggamit]] (EUA). Idinisenyo sila upang magprotekta laban sa mga tipik sa hangin tulad ng alikabaok ngunit hindi garantisado ang bisa laban sa isang tiyak na elementong biyolohikal para sa paggamit ''off-label''na wala sa reseta.<ref>{{cite web|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Frequently Asked Questions|url=https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-issues/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-frehttps://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malauti%C3%A1_de_coronavirus_de_2019quently-asked-questions#5e78ba94b86da|website=Food and Drug Administration}}</ref> Kapag walang magagamit na mask, inirerekumenda ng CDC ang paggamit ng panakip sa mukha, o bilang huling paraan ang mga mask na gawang-bahay.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/face-masks.html|title=Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of Facemasks|date=11 February 2020|publisher=CDC|access-date=23 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200323173927/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/face-masks.html|archive-date=23 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
===De-makinang bentilasyon===
 
Karamihan ng mga kaso ng COVID-19 ay hindi ganoong katindi na kailangan ang [[mechanical ventilation|de-makinang bentilasyon]] (artipisyal na pansuporta sa paghihinga) , ngunit kailangan ito ng bahagdan ng mga kaso.<ref name="murthy">{{cite journal | vauthors = Murthy S, Gomersall CD, Fowler RA | title = Care for Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 | journal = JAMA | date = 11 March 2020 | pmid = 32159735 | doi = 10.1001/jama.2020.3633 | url = https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762996 | access-date = 18 March 2020 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20200318203852/https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762996 |archive-date=18 March 2020 |url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=World Health Organization|date=28 January 2020|title=Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection is suspected|url=https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/clinical-management-of-novel-cov.pdf|journal=|volume=|pages=|via=|access-date=18 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200226041620/https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/clinical-management-of-novel-cov.pdf|archive-date=26 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Inirerekumenda ng iilang mga Kanadyanong doktor ang paggamit ng [[mechanical ventilation|mapanghimasok na de-makinang bentilasyon]] dahil nililimitahan ng pamamaraan ang pagkalat ng [[Airborne disease|pinaerosol]] na [[Vector (epidemiology)|bektor]] ng transmisyon.<ref name="murthy"/> Ang mga matinding kaso ay pinakakaraniwan sa mga matatanda (ang mga nakatatanda sa 60 taon<ref name="murthy"/> at lalo na ang mga nakatatanda sa 80 taon).<ref>{{Cite document |last1=Ferguson |first1=N. |last2=Laydon |first2=D.|last3=Nedjati Gilani |first3=G. |last4=Imai |first4=N. |last5=Ainslie |first5=K. |last6=Baguelin |first6=M. |last7=Bhatia |first7=S. |last8=Boonyasiri|first8=A.|last9=Cucunuba Perez|first9=Zulma|last10=Cuomo-Dannenburg |first10=G. |last11=Dighe |first11=A. |date=16 March 2020 |title=Report 9: Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand|publisher=[[Imperial College London]] |url=http://spiral.imperial.ac.uk/handle/10044/1/77482|doi=10.25561/77482|hdl=20.1000/100|doi-access=free|at=Table 1|journal=|access-date=25 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200321133445/https://spiral.imperial.ac.uk/handle/10044/1/77482|archive-date=21 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Kulang ang mga [[List of countries by hospital beds|higaan sa ospital sa bawat tao]] sa maraming nagpapaunlad na bansa, na nakalilimita sa kapasidad ng [[sistemang pangkalusugan]] upang pangasiwaan ang biglang pagdami ng mga kaso ng COVID-19 na matindi anupat nangangailangan ng pagpapaospital.<ref name="VoxCOVID">{{cite news |last=Scott |first=Dylan |title=Coronavirus is exposing all of the weaknesses in the US health system High health care costs and low medical capacity made the US uniquely vulnerable to the coronavirus. |url=https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2020/3/16/21173766/coronavirus-covid-19-us-cases-health-care-system |accessdate=18 March 2020 |publisher=Vox |date=16 March 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200318022237/https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2020/3/16/21173766/coronavirus-covid-19-us-cases-health-care-system |archive-date=18 March 2020 |url-status=live}}</ref> Itong limitadong kapasidad ay mahalagang dahilan kung bakit kailangang [[Panlipunang pagdidistansya|patagin ang kurba]] (panatilihin ang bagal ng pagkakaroon ng bagong kaso para kalunang bababa ang bilang ng may sakit).<ref name="VoxCOVID"/> Natuklasan ng isang pagsusuri sa Tsina na 5% ang naospital sa mga [[intensive care unit|''intensive care unit'']], 2.3% ang nangailangan ng de-makinang suporta ng bentilasyon, at 1.4% ang namatay.<ref name="Guan Ni Hu Liang p.">{{cite journal | vauthors = Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, Shan H, Lei CL, Hui DS, Du B, Li LJ, Zeng G, Yuen KY, Chen RC, Tang CL, Wang T, Chen PY, Xiang J, Li SY, Wang JL, Liang ZJ, Peng YX, Wei L, Liu Y, Hu YH, Peng P, Wang JM, Liu JY, Chen Z, Li G, Zheng ZJ, Qiu SQ, Luo J, Ye CJ, Zhu SY, Zhong NS | display-authors = 6 | title = Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China | journal = The New England Journal of Medicine | date = February 2020 | pmid = 32109013 | doi = 10.1056/nejmoa2002032 | publisher = Massachusetts Medical Society | doi-access = free }}</ref> Halos 20–30% ng mga tao sa ospital na may pulmonya mula sa COVID-19 ay nangailangan ng ''ICU care'' bilang suporta sa palahingahan.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html|title=Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)|last=|date=2020-02-11|website=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|language=en-us|access-date=2020-03-29|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200302201644/https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html|archive-date=2 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
===Teknolohiya sa paggawa===
 
Dahil sa mga pagkabigo sa mga [[supply chain|daloy ng produkto]], namamagitan ang mga digital na tagagawa sa pagyayari ng mga pamahid sa ilong, bahagi ng bentilador, at iba pa.<ref>{{cite news |last1=Temple |first1=James |title=How 3D printing could save lives in the coronavirus outbreak |url=https://www.technologyreview.com/s/615420/3d-printing-coronavirus-covid-19-medical-supplies-devices/ |accessdate=5 April 2020 |work=MIT Technology Review}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last1=Tibken |first1=Shara |title=3D printing may help supply more essential coronavirus medical gear |url=https://www.cnet.com/news/3d-printing-may-help-supply-more-essential-coronavirus-medical-gear/ |accessdate=5 April 2020 |work=CNET |language=en}}</ref> Nag-empleo ang isang Italyanong ''startup'' ng teknolohiya ng [[3D printing|3D-limbag]] upang gumawa ng mga balbula para sa paggamot para sa coronavirus na nagliligtas-buhay dahil sa nasirang daloy ng produkto mula sa orihinal na pagmamanupaktura.<ref>{{cite news |title=[Updating] Italian hospital saves Covid-19 patients lives by 3D printing valves for reanimation devices |url=https://www.3dprintingmedia.network/covid-19-3d-printed-valve-for-reanimation-device/ |accessdate=20 March 2020 |work=3D Printing Media Network |date=14 March 2020}}</ref> $1 ang naging gastos ng mga balbulang inilimbag-3D sa halip ng $10,000 at nahanda nang magdamag.<ref>{{cite news |last1=Peters |first1=Jay |title=Volunteers produce 3D-printed valves for life-saving coronavirus treatments |url=https://www.theverge.com/2020/3/17/21184308/coronavirus-italy-medical-3d-print-valves-treatments |accessdate=20 March 2020 |work=The Verge |date=17 March 2020 |language=en}}</ref>
 
=== Sindrom ng matalas na sakit sa palahingahan ===
 
Nagiging mas kumplikado ang [[Mechanical ventilation|de-makinang bentilasyon]] habang lumalala ang [[ARDS]] sa COVID-19 at humihirap nang humihirap ang oksihenasyon.<ref name="LancetRespMar2020" /> Kakailanganin ang mga bentilador na may kakayahan ng [[Modes of mechanical ventilation|paraan ng pagkontrol sa presyon]] at mataas na [[PEEP]]<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Briel |first1=Matthias |last2=Meade |first2=Maureen |last3=Mercat |first3=Alain |last4=Brower |first4=Roy G. |last5=Talmor |first5=Daniel |last6=Walter |first6=Stephen D. |last7=Slutsky |first7=Arthur S. |last8=Pullenayegum |first8=Eleanor |last9=Zhou |first9=Qi |last10=Cook |first10=Deborah |last11=Brochard |first11=Laurent |last12=Richard |first12=Jean-Christophe M. |last13=Lamontagne |first13=François |last14=Bhatnagar |first14=Neera |last15=Stewart |first15=Thomas E. |last16=Guyatt |first16=Gordon |title=Higher vs Lower Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Patients With Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome |journal=JAMA |date=3 March 2010 |volume=303 |issue=9 |pages=865–73 |doi=10.1001/jama.2010.218|pmid=20197533 }}</ref> upang sukdulan ang paghahatid ng oksiheno at bawasan ang panganib ng [[ventilator-associated lung injury|pagkapinsala ng baga na may kaugnay sa bentilador]] at [[pneumothorax|numotoraks]].<ref name="barotrauma">{{cite book |last1=Diaz |first1=Raiko |last2=Heller |first2=Daniel |title=Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545226/ |website=StatPearls |publisher=StatPearls Publishing |date=2020|pmid=31424810 }}</ref> Maaaring walang mataas na PEEP sa mga lumang bentilador.
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; margin-right:1em;"
|+ style="background:#E5AFAA;" |Mga opsyon para sa ARDS<ref name=LancetRespMar2020>{{cite journal |last1=Matthay |first1=Michael A. |last2=Aldrich |first2=J. Matthew |last3=Gotts |first3=Jeffrey E. |title=Treatment for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19 |journal=The Lancet Respiratory Medicine |date=March 2020 |doi=10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30127-2|pmid=32203709 }}</ref>
|- style="background: #E5AFAA;text-align:center;"
! Terapiya
! Mga rekomendasyon
|-
| [[Nasal cannula|Taas-daloy ng oksihenong pailong]]
(''High-flow nasal oxygen'')
| Para sa [[oxygen saturation|SpO2]] <93%. Maaaring maiwasan ang pangagailangan para sa intubason at bentilasyon
|-
| [[Tidal volume|Dami ng dumadaloy]]
(''Tidal volume'')
| 6mL bawat kg at maaaring ibaba hanggang 4mL/kg
|-
| [[Plateau pressure|Pantayaning presyon ng daanan ng hangin]]
(''Plateau airaway pressure'')
| Panatilihing nang mababa sa 30 [[Centimetre of water|cmH2O]] kung posible (mataas na [[respiratory rate|bilis ng palahingahan]] (35 bawat minuto) ay maaaring kailanganin)
|-
| [[Positive end-expiratory pressure|Positibong presyon sa wakas ng pagbuga]]
(''Positive end-expiratory pressure'')
| Katamtaman hanggang mataas na antas
|-
| [[Prone position|Posisyong nakadapa]]
(''Prone positioning'')
| Para sa lumalalang oksihenasyon
|-
| [[Fluid replacement|Pangangasiwa ng likido]]
(''Fluid management'')
| Ang layunin ay negatibong balanse ng 1/2–[[Litro|1L]] bawat araw
|-
|[[Antibiyotiko]]
| Para sa mga pangalawahing impeksyong dulot ng baktirya
|-
| Mga [[Glucocorticoids|glucocorticoid]]
| Di-inirerekomenda
|}
== Talasanggunian ==
{{reflist}}
3,015

edit