Hilagang Irlanda: Pagkakaiba sa mga binago

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[[Talaksan:Europe location N-IRL2.png|thumb|Hilagang Irlanda]]
Ang '''Hilagang Irlanda''' ({{lang-en|Northern Ireland}}, {{lang-ga|Tuaisceart Éireann}} {{IPA-ga|ˈt̪ˠuəʃcəɾˠt̪ˠ ˈeːɾʲən̪ˠ||Tuaisceart_Eireann.ogg}};<ref>[https://www.dfa.ie/ie/nuacht-agus-na-meain/tags/browsebyregion/tuaisceart-%C3%A9ireann/ Tuaisceart Éireann]. DFA.ie. Retrieved 27 March 2016.</ref> Ulster-Eskoses: ''{{lang|sco|Norlin Airlann}}'') ay iba't iba ang pagsasalarawan bilang isang bansa, lalawigan, o rehiyon na bahagi ng [[Reino Unido]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Statistic of the United Kingdom|url=http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/beginner-s-guide/administrative/the-countries-of-the-uk/index.html|archive-url=http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160105160709/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/beginner-s-guide/administrative/the-countries-of-the-uk/index.html|url-status=dead|archive-date=5 Enero 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Northern Ireland|url=https://www.britannica.com/place/Northern-Ireland|website=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]|access-date=11 Oktubre 2015|language=en}}</ref><ref name="alphabeticalNI">{{citation|author1=S. Dunn|author2=H. Dawson|year=2000|title=An Alphabetical Listing of Word, Name and Place in Northern Ireland and the Living Language of Conflict|publisher=Edwin Mellen Press|location=Lampeter|quote=One specific problem – in both general and particular senses – is to know what to call Northern Ireland itself: in the general sense, it is not a country, or a province, or a state – although some refer to it contemptuously as a statelet: the least controversial word appears to be jurisdiction, but this might change.|language=en}}</ref><ref name="interpretingNI">{{citation|author1=J. Whyte|author2=G. FitzGerald|year=1991|title=Interpreting Northern Ireland|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|quote=One problem must be adverted to in writing about Northern Ireland. This is the question of what name to give to the various geographical entities. These names can be controversial, with the choice often revealing one's political preferences. ... some refer to Northern Ireland as a 'province'. That usage can arouse irritation particularly among nationalists, who claim the title 'province' should be properly reserved to the four historic provinces of Ireland-Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connacht. If I want to a label to apply to Northern Ireland I shall call it a 'region'. Unionists should find that title as acceptable as 'province': Northern Ireland appears as a region in the regional statistics of the United Kingdom published by the British government.|language=en}}</ref><ref name="placeApart">{{citation|author=D. Murphy|year=1979|title=A Place Apart|publisher=Penguin Books|location=London|quote=Next – what noun is appropriate to Northern Ireland? 'Province' won't do since one-third of the province is on the wrong side of the border. 'State' implies more self-determination than Northern Ireland has ever had and 'country' or 'nation' are blatantly absurd. 'Colony' has overtones that would be resented by both communities and 'statelet' sounds too patronizing, though outsiders might consider it more precise than anything else; so one is left with the unsatisfactory word 'region'.|language=en}}</ref> Matatagpuan sa hilagang-silangan ng pulo ng [[Irlanda]], nagbabahagiibinabahagi ng isangang hangganan nito sa timog at kanluran nito sa [[Republika ng Irlanda]]. Noong 2011, mayroon itong populasyon na 1,810,863,<ref name="Norther Ireland Statistics & Research Agency 2012">{{cite web|title=Census 2011 Key Statistics for Northern Ireland |url=http://www.nisra.gov.uk/Census/key_report_2011.pdf |access-date=14 Enero 2013 |author=Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency |date=Disyembre 2012 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121224033625/http://www.nisra.gov.uk/Census/key_report_2011.pdf |archive-date=24 Disyembre 2012 }}</ref> na binubuo ng mga 30% na populasyon ng pulo at mga 3% ng populasyon ng Reino Unido. Ang Asembliya ng Hilagang Irlanda (kolokyal na tinutukoy bilang Stormont dahil sa lokasyon nito), ay itinatag sa pamamagitan ng Batas sa Hilagang Irlanda ng 1998, na may responsibilidad sa iba't ibang pabago-bagong polisya, habang nakaresrba ang ibang larangan sa pamahalaang Britaniko]]. May kooperasyon ang Hilagang Irlanda at Republika ng Irlanda sa ilang parte.<ref name="gfa">{{citation|url=http://peacemaker.un.org/node/1697|title=Northern Ireland Peace Agreement (The Good Friday Agreement)|author1=Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|author2=Government of Ireland|year=1998}}</ref>
 
Nalikha ang Hilagang Irlanda noong 1921, nang hinati ang Irlanda sa pamamagitan ng Batas ng Pamahalaan ng Irlanda ng 1920. Karamihan sa populasyon ng Hilagang Irlanda ay unyonista, na gustong manatili sa Reino Unido.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uup.org/policy/standing-up-for-northern-ireland/index.php|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090504140541/http://www.uup.org/policy/standing-up-for-northern-ireland/index.php|archive-date=4 Mayo 2009|title=Standing up for Northern Ireland|publisher=Ulster Unionist Party|access-date=2 Agosto 2008|language=en}}</ref> Pangkalahatan silang inapo ng kolonista mula sa Gran Britanya. Habang ang mayorya sa Katimugang Irlanda (na naging Malayang Estadong Irlandes noong 1922), at isang mahalagang minorya sa Hilagang Irlanda, ay nasyonalistang Irlandes at mga [[Romano Katoliko|Katoliko]] na nais ang isang pinag-isang malayang Irlanda.<ref>Richard Jenkin, 1997, ''Rethinking ethnicity: arguments and explorations'', SAGE Publications: London: "In Northern Ireland the objectives of contemporary nationalists are the reunification of Ireland and the removal of British government." (sa Ingles)</ref><ref>Peter Dorey, 1995, ''British politics since 1945'', Blackwell Publishers: Oxford: "Just as some Nationalists have been prepared to use violence in order to secure Irish reunification, so some Unionists have been prepared to use violence in order to oppose it." (sa Ingles)</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sinnfein.ie/policies/document/155|title=Strategy Framework Document: Reunification through Planned Integration: Sinn Féin's All Ireland Agenda|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060716075752/http://www.sinnfein.ie/policies/document/155|archive-date=16 Hulyo 2006|language=en}} Sinn Féin. Hinango noong 2 Agosto 2008.</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sdlp.ie/policy_details.php?id=78 |title=Policy Summaries: Constitutional Issues|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090618145438/http://www.sdlp.ie/policy_details.php?id=78 |archive-date=18 Hunyo 2009|publisher=Social Democratic and Labour Party |access-date=2 Agosto 2008}}</ref> Ngayon, tinitingnan ng mga unyonista ang kanilang sarili bilang Britaniko habang ang mga nasyonalista naman bilang Irlandes, habang ang identidad na Hilagang Irlandes o Ulster ay inaangkin ng isang malaking minorya na mula sa iba't ibang pinagmulan.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ark.ac.uk/nilt/2014/Community_Relations/NINATID.html|title=Which of these best describes the way you think of yourself?|year=2014|website=Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey|access-date=24 Marso 2016|language=en}}</ref>