Pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng mga pagbago ng "Panlipunang pagdidistansiya"

Inihalintulad sa bersyong Ingles (Hindi pa tapos ang pagsasalinwika).
(Isinaayos ang mga sanggunian)
Tatak: 2017 source edit
(Inihalintulad sa bersyong Ingles (Hindi pa tapos ang pagsasalinwika).)
 
== Mga hakbang ==
[[File:Covid-19_flatten_the_curve_-_cropped_version_(no_cartoon).gif|thumb|upright=1.5|Nakatutulong ang panlipunang pagpapalayo sa matalas na rurok ng impeksyon ("flattens the [[epidemic curve]]") para maiwasan na matabunan ang mga serbisyong pangkalusugan.<ref name="Wiles_20200309">{{cite web |author-last=Wiles |author-first=Siouxsie |author-link=Siouxsie Wiles |title=The three phases of Covid-19 – and how we can make it manageable |date=2020-03-09 |work=[[The Spinoff]] |location=Morningside, Auckland, New Zealand |url=https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/09-03-2020/the-three-phases-of-covid-19-and-how-we-can-make-it-manageable/ |access-date=2020-03-09 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200327120015/https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/09-03-2020/the-three-phases-of-covid-19-and-how-we-can-make-it-manageable/ |archive-date=2020-03-27}}</ref><ref name="Wiles_20200314">{{cite web |author-last=Wiles |author-first=Siouxsie |author-link=Siouxsie Wiles |title=After 'Flatten the Curve', we must now 'Stop the Spread'. Here's what that means |date=2020-03-14 |work=[[The Spinoff]] |location=Morningside, Auckland, New Zealand |url=https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/14-03-2020/after-flatten-the-curve-we-must-now-stop-the-spread-heres-what-that-means/ |access-date=2020-03-13 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200326232315/https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/14-03-2020/after-flatten-the-curve-we-must-now-stop-the-spread-heres-what-that-means/ |archive-date=2020-03-26}}</ref><ref name="Anderson_20200309">{{cite journal |author-last1=Anderson |author-first1=Roy Malcom |author-link1=Roy Malcolm Anderson |author-last2=Heesterbeek |author-first2=Hans J. A. P. |author-last3=Klinkenberg |author-first3=Don |author-last4=Hollingsworth |author-first4=T. Déirdre |author-link4=:wikidata:Q42660467 |date=2020-03-09 |title=How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? |journal=[[The Lancet]] |language=en |volume=395 |issue=10228 |pages=931–934 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30567-5 |issn=0140-6736 |pmid=32164834 |url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30567-5/abstract |access-date=2020-03-28 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200327110325/https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30567-5/fulltext |archive-date=2020-03-27 |quote=A key issue for epidemiologists is helping policy makers decide the main objectives of mitigation—e.g., minimising morbidity and associated mortality, avoiding an epidemic peak that overwhelms health-care services, keeping the effects on the economy within manageable levels, and flattening the epidemic curve to wait for vaccine development and manufacture on scale and antiviral drug therapies.}}</ref>]]
Kabilang sa mga hakbang ng panlipunang pagdidistansya na ginagamit upang kontrolin ang pagkalat ng nakahahawang sakit ang:<ref name="cdc2007">Kathy Kinlaw, Robert Levine, [https://www.cdc.gov/od/science/integrity/phethics/docs/panflu_ethic_guidelines.pdf "Ethical Guidelines on Pandemic Influenza"], CDC, 15 February 2007, p. 2</ref><ref name="cidrap">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/sites/default/files/public/php/185/185_factsheet_social_distancing.pdf|title=Information about social distancing|last=|first=|date=|website=www.cidrap.umn.edu|publisher=Public Health Department: Santa Clara Valley Health & Hospital System|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=17 March 2020}}</ref>
 
Ang kaalaman na kumakalat ang isang sakit ay maaaring magpasimula ng [[behaviour change (public health)|pagbabago sa ugali]] ng mga taong pumipiling umiiwas mula sa mga pampublikong lugar at ibang tao. Kapag ipinapatupad upang kontrolin ang mga epidemya, ang ganoong pagdidistansya ay makabubunga ng benepisyo subalit may lugi sa ekonomiya. Ipinapahayag ng mga saliksik na kailangang isabuhay nang mahigpit upang maging epektibo.<ref name="Maharaj2012">{{cite journal |author-last1=Maharaj |author-first1=Savi |author-last2=Kleczkowski |author-first2=Adam |date=2012 |title=Controlling epidemic spread by social distancing: Do it well or not at all |journal=[[BioMed Central|BMC Public Health]] |volume=12 |issue=1 |page=679 |doi=10.1186/1471-2458-12-679 |pmid=22905965 |pmc=3563464}}</ref> Ginagamit ang iilang hakbang ukol sa panlipunang pagdidistansya upang pigilan ang pagkakalat ng mga nakahahawang sakit.<ref name="cdc2007">{{cite web |author-first1=Kathy |author-last1=Kinlaw |author-first2=Robert J. |author-last2=Levine |title=Ethical guidelines in Pandemic Influenza – Recommendations of the Ethics Subcommittee of the Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |publisher=[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] |date=2007-02-15 |url=https://www.cdc.gov/od/science/integrity/phethics/docs/panflu_ethic_guidelines.pdf |access-date=2020-03-23 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200205095942/https://www.cdc.gov/od/science/integrity/phethics/docs/panflu_ethic_guidelines.pdf |archive-date=2020-02-05}} (12 pages)</ref><ref name="cidrap">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/sites/default/files/public/php/185/185_factsheet_social_distancing.pdf|title=Information about social distancing|last=|first=|date=|website=www.cidrap.umn.edu|publisher=Public Health Department: Santa Clara Valley Health & Hospital System|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=17 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="Pearce2020"/>
* pagsasara ng mga paaralan (maagap o reaktibo)<ref name="CauchemezFerguson2009" />
* pagsasara ng mga opisina,<ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Kumar S, Crouse Quinn S, Kim KH, Daniel LH, Freimuth VS|year=2012|title=The Impact of Workplace Policies and Other Social Factors on Self-Reported Influenza-Like Illness Incidence During the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic|url=|journal=American Journal of Public Health|volume=102|issue=1|pages=134–140|doi=10.2105/AJPH.2011.300307|pmid=22095353|pmc=3490553}}</ref> kasama na ang pagsasara ng mga "di-kinakailangang" negosyo at serbisyong panlipunan (Ibig sabihin ng "Di-kinakailangan" ay mga pasilidad na hindi nagpapanatili ng mga pangunahing gawain sa komunidad, kumpara sa mga [[ Mahahalagang serbisyo |kinakailangang serbisyo]]<ref>[https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/OEPR_Guidelines-for-Social-Distancing-Pandemic-Readiness.pdf "Social Distancing Support Guidelines," Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment, March 2008.]</ref>)
*[[ Paghiwalay (pangangalaga sa kalusugan) |pagbubukod]]
*[[ Quarantine |kuwarentenas]]
*[[ Sanitaire ng cordon |kordon sanitaryo]]
*[[ Proteksyon ng pagkakasunud-sunod |pamprotektang pagsamsam]]
* pagkakansela ng mga [[ Mass pagtitipon |pagtitipon]] tulad ng mga palaro, pelikula o panugtog na palabas<ref>R. Booy and J. Ward, [https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/519F9392797E2DDCCA257D47001B9948/$File/Social.pdf "Evidence compendium and advice on social distancing and other related measures for response to an influenza pandemic," National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance.]</ref>
* pagsasara o paglilimita ng [[ Mass transit |transportasyon ng madla]]
* pagsasara ng mga pasilidad sa paglilibang (mga languyan, mga samahan ng kabataan, himnasyo)<ref>[http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/ops/hsc-scen-3_flu-pandemic-distancing.htm "Flu Pandemic Mitigation - Social Distancing"]</ref>
* kabilang sa mga panukalang "pagsanggalang-sa-sarili" para sa mga indibidwal ang paglilimita sa pagharap sa ibang tao, pagsasagawa ng negosyo sa telepono o online, pag-iwas sa mga pampublikong lugar at pagbabawas ng di-kinakailangang paglalakbay<ref>[https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/11/06-0255_article Glass RJ, Glass LM, Beyeler WE, Min HJ. "Targeted Social Distancing Designs for Pandemic Influenza." ''Emerg Infect Dis.'' 2006;12(11):1671-1681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1211.060255]</ref><ref>[https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/policies/pages/cms_016204.aspx "Social Distancing Guidelines (for workplace communicable disease outbreaks)"]</ref>
 
===Pag-iiwas ng pisikal na kontak===
=== Mga alternatibo sa pakikipagkamay ===
[[TalaksanFile:Covid-19-Handshake-Alternatives-v3.gif|thumb| upright=1.5|Kasama sa panlipunang pagdidistansya ang pag-alis ng pakikipag-ugnayang pisikal na nangyayari sa pangkaraniwang [[pakikipagkamay]], [[ Hug |yakap]], [[apir]], o [[hongi]]; itinatampok sa larawang ito ang walong alternatibo.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Wiles|first1=Siouxsie|title=The world is on fire: My message to New Zealanders on Covid-19|url=https://thespinoff.co.nz/society/16-03-2020/the-world-is-on-fire-my-message-to-new-zealanders-on-covid-19/|website=The Spinoff|accessdate=16 March 2020|date=16 March 2020}}</ref> ]]
Ang pagpapanatili ng distansya ng dalawang metro mula sa iba at pag-iiwas sa yakap at [[List of gestures|kilos]] na may direktang pisikal na kontak, ay nagbabawas sa panganib na mahawahan tuwing mga [[pandemya]] ng trangkaso at pandemya ng coronavirus ng 2020.<ref name="Pearce2020"/><ref name="osha">{{cite web |title=Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic |id=OSHA 3327-02N 2007 |work=[[Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970]] |publisher=[[United States Department of Labor]] |url=https://www.osha.gov/Publications/influenza_pandemic.html |access-date=2020-03-18 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200325141049/https://www.osha.gov/Publications/influenza_pandemic.html |archive-date=2020-03-25}} [https://web.archive.org/web/20200319163737/https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3327pandemic.pdf]</ref> Inirerekumenda rin ang ganitong mga pagdidistansya, pati na rin ang mga hakbang sa pansariling kalinisan, sa mga lugar ng trabaho.<ref name="UofCh">{{Cite web |title=Social Distancing |publisher=Department of Safety & Security, [[The University of Chicago]] |date=2015 |website=safety-security.uchicago.edu |url=https://safety-security.uchicago.edu/emergency_management/all_hazard_safety_procedures/social_distancing/ |access-date=2020-03-29 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200324150358/https://safety-security.uchicago.edu/emergency_management/all_hazard_safety_procedures/social_distancing/ |archive-date=2020-03-24}}</ref> Saanman maaari mairerekumendang [[telecommuting|magtrabaho sa bahay]].<ref name="gov.ukSD"/>
Kabilang sa mga gawi ng panlipunang pagdidistansya ang [[ Listahan ng mga kilos |mga iba't ibang kilos]] na nakaiiwas sa pakikipag-ugnayang pisikal; dapat maghanap ng alternatibo ang mga kulturang naghahawakan tuwing pagbati o paalam.<ref>{{cite web|title=Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic|url=https://www.osha.gov/Publications/influenza_pandemic.html|website=www.osha.gov|accessdate=18 March 2020}}</ref> Isang alternatibo ang kilos ng [[namaste]], paglalapat ng mga palad, daliri pataas, mga kamay patungo sa puso. Noong [[ 2020 coronavirus pandemic sa United Kingdom |2020 pandemya ng coronavirus sa Reyno Unido]], ginamit ni [[Charles, Prinsipe ng Wales|Prinsipe Charles]] ang kilos na sa kanyang pagbati sa mga bisita, at inirekomenda ng Direktor-Heneral ng [[Pandaigdigang Organisasyon sa Kalusugan]], [[Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus]], at Israeling Punong Ministro na si [[Benjamin Netanyahu]].<ref name="Barajas13March2020">{{Cite web|url=https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-03-13/coronavirus-namaste-greetings-handshakes-noncontact|title=Joined palms, hands on hearts, Vulcan salutes: Saying hello in a no-handshake era|last=Barajas|first=Julia|last2=Etehad|first2=Melissa|date=13 March 2020|website=Los Angeles Times|language=en-US|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=18 March 2020}}</ref> Kinabibilangan ng iba pang mga alternatibo ang [[ Wave (kilos) |kaway]], [[ Shaka sign |''shaka sign'' (o "''hang loose sign''")]], at paglalagay ng palad patungo sa puso, tulad ng isinasagawa sa mga bahagi ng Iran.<ref name="Barajas13March2020" />
 
Kabilang sa mga gawi ng panlipunang pagdidistansyaIminungkahi ang [[ Listahan ng mga kilos |mga iba't ibang kilos]] na nakaiiwasalternatibo sa pakikipag-ugnayang pisikal; dapat maghanapkaugalian ng alternatibo ang mga kulturang naghahawakan tuwing pagbati o paalam[[pakikipagkamay]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic|url=https://www.osha.gov/Publications/influenza_pandemic.html|website=www.osha.gov|accessdate=18 March 2020}}</ref> Isang alternatibo ang kilos ng [[namaste]], paglalapat ng mga palad, daliri pataas, mga kamay patungo sa puso. Noong [[ 2020 coronavirus pandemic sa United Kingdom |2020 pandemya ng coronavirus sa Reyno Unido]], ginamit ni [[Charles, Prinsipe ng Wales|Prinsipe Charles]] ang kilos na sa kanyang pagbati sa mga bisita, at inirekomenda ng Direktor-Heneral ng [[Pandaigdigang Organisasyon sa Kalusugan]], [[Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus]], at Israeling Punong Ministro na si [[Benjamin Netanyahu]].<ref name="Barajas13March2020">{{Cite web|url=https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-03-13/coronavirus-namaste-greetings-handshakes-noncontact|title=Joined palms, hands on hearts, Vulcan salutes: Saying hello in a no-handshake era|lastauthor-last1=Barajas|firstauthor-first1=Julia|author-last2=Etehad|author-first2=Melissa|date=13 March 2020-03-13|website=[[Los Angeles Times]]|language=en-US|url=https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-03-13/coronavirus-namaste-greetings-handshakes-noncontact|access-date=2020-03-18|url-status=live|archive-url=|https://web.archive.org/web/20200327064424/https://www.latimes.com/world-date=nation/story/2020-03-13/coronavirus-namaste-greetings-handshakes-noncontact|accessarchive-date=18 March 2020-03-27}}</ref> Kinabibilangan ng iba pang mga alternatibo ang [[ Wave (kilos) |kaway]], [[ Shaka sign |pagsa-''shaka sign'' (o "''hang loose sign''")]], at paglalagay ng palad patungo sa puso, tulad ng isinasagawa sa mga bahagi ng Iran.<ref name="Barajas13March2020" /> <gallery>
Talaksan:Social Distancing in a Computer Lab.jpg|Sa kompyuterang ito, isinara ang lahat ng iba pang ''workstation'' para lumaki ang distansya sa pagitan ng mga taong nagtatrabaho
Talaksan:President of Taiwan greeting.jpg|Si [[Tsai Ing-wen]], pangulo ng [[Taiwan]]ese, na nagbibigay ng tradisyonal na Tsinong [[greeting]] sa halip ng [[pakikipagkamay]]
Talaksan:Social Distancing Sign @ London Drugs (49684963711).jpg|Makatutulong sa mga tao ang mga marka sa sahig para manatili nila ang distansya sa mga pampublikong lugar
</gallery>
 
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