Pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng mga pagbago ng "Pinocchio (pelikula noong 1940)"

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{{short description|1940 American animated film produced by Walt Disney based on the Carlo Collodi story}}
{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2015}}
{{good article}}
{{Infobox film
| name = Pinocchio
| image = Pinocchio-1940-poster.jpg
| caption = Theatrical release poster
| director = '''Supervising Directors'''{{unbulleted list|<br>[[Ben Sharpsteen]]|<br>[[Hamilton Luske]]}}<br>'''Sequence Directors'''{{unbulleted list|<br>Bill Roberts|<br>[[Norm Ferguson (animator)|Norman Ferguson]]|<br>[[Jack Kinney]]|<br>[[Wilfred Jackson]]|<br>[[T. Hee]]}}
| producer = [[Walt Disney]]
| story screenplay = {{unbulleted list|[[Ted Sears]]|<br />Otto Englander|<br />Webb Smith|<br />William Cottrell|<br />Joseph Sabo|<br />Erdman Penner|<br />[[Aurelius Battaglia]]}}
| based_onbased on = {{based on|''[[The Adventures of Pinocchio]]''|[[Carlo Collodi]]}}
| starring = [[Cliff Edwards]]<br />[[Dick Jones (actor)|Dickie Jones]]<br />[[Christian Rub]]<br />[[Mel Blanc]]<br />[[Walter Catlett]]<br />[[Charles Judels]]<br />[[Evelyn Venable]]<br />[[Frankie Darro]]
| starring = {{Plainlist|
| music = [[Leigh Harline]]<br />[[Paul Smith (film and television composer)|Paul J. Smith]]
* [[Cliff Edwards]]
* [[Dick Jones (actor)|Dickie Jones]]
* [[Christian Rub]]
* [[Mel Blanc]]
* [[Walter Catlett]]
* [[Charles Judels]]
* [[Evelyn Venable]]
* [[Frankie Darro]]
}}
| music = {{unbulleted list|[[Leigh Harline]]|[[Paul Smith (composer)|Paul J. Smith]]}}
| studio = [[Walt Disney Animation Studios|Walt Disney Productions]]
| distributor = [[RKO Pictures|RKO Radio Pictures]]
| released = {{Film date|1940|02|07|[[Center Theatre (New York City)|Center Theatre]]|1940|2|23|ref1=<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RV2hAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT212|title=How to Be Like Walt: Capturing the Disney Magic Every Day of Your Life|last1=Williams|first1=Pat|last2=Denney|first2=Jim|date=January 1, 2010|publisher=Simon and Schuster|isbn=978-0-7573-9446-1|pages=212|df=mdy-all}}</ref> |ref2=<ref>{{cite web | url=httpshttp://catalogwww.afi.com/Catalogmembers/MovieDetailscatalog/DetailView.aspx?s=&Movie=5131 | title=Pinocchio: Detail View | publisher=American Film Institute | accessdate=April 12, Abril 2014}}</ref>|Estados Unidos}}
| runtime = 88 minutesminuto
| country = UnitedEstados StatesUnidos
| language = EnglishIngles
| budget = $2.6 million,289,247{{sfn|Barrier|1999|ppp=266269–73}}
| gross = $84.2 milyon<ref>{{cite web|title=Pinocchio|publisher=[[Box Office Mojo]]|url=http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=pinocchio.htm|accessdate=10 Hunyo 2009}}</ref>
| gross = $164&nbsp;million
}}
Ang '''''Pinocchio''''' isay a 1940 Americanisang [[Animatedpelikulang film|animatedanimasyon]] [[Musical film|musical]]na [[fantasy film|fantasymusikal]] [[adventurena film|adventure]]ginawa filmnoong produced1940 byni [[Walt Disney Animation Studios|Walt Disney Productions]] andat basedipinalabas onng the 1883 Italian children's novel ''[[TheRKO Adventures of Pinocchio]]'' by [[Carlo Collodi]]. It was the second animated feature film produced by Disney, made after the first animated success ''[[Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (pelikula noong 1937)Pictures|SnowRKO WhiteRadio and the Seven DwarfsPictures]]'' (1937).
 
==Mga sanggunian==
The plot involves an old Italian [[wood carving|wood-carver]] named [[Geppetto]] who carves a wooden puppet named [[Pinocchio#Disney version|Pinocchio]]. The puppet is brought to life by a [[Fairy with Turquoise Hair|blue fairy]], who informs him that he can become a real boy if he proves himself to be "brave, truthful, and unselfish". Pinocchio's efforts to become a real boy involve encounters with a host of unsavory characters. The key character of [[Jiminy Cricket]] is based on a 100-year "wise, old" [[Talking Cricket|talking cricket]] from the original book,<ref>{{cite book|last=Green|first=Stanley|title=Hollywood Musicals Year by Year|year=1999|edition=2nd|publisher=Hal Leonard Corporation|isbn=0-634-00765-3|page=91}}</ref> who warns Pinocchio of his impudence when they meet only to be killed in return shortly after, before returning as a ghost.<ref>Collodi, Carlo. ''The Adventures of Pinocchio''. Apple Books. Chapter 4.</ref> The film was adapted by several storyboard artists from Collodi's book. The production was supervised by [[Ben Sharpsteen]] and [[Hamilton Luske]], and the film's sequences were directed by [[Norm Ferguson (animator)|Norman Ferguson]], [[T. Hee]], [[Wilfred Jackson]], [[Jack Kinney]], and Bill Roberts. ''Pinocchio'' was a groundbreaking achievement in the area of effects animation, giving realistic movement to vehicles, machinery and natural elements such as rain, lightning, smoke, shadows and water. The film was released to theaters by [[RKO Radio Pictures]] on February 7, 1940.
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Although it became the first animated feature to win a competitive Academy Award — winning two for [[Academy Award for Best Original Score|Best Music, Original Score]] and for [[Academy Award for Best Original Song|Best Music, Original Song]] for "[[When You Wish Upon a Star]]" — it was initially a [[box office bomb]], mainly due to [[World War II]] cutting off the European and Asian markets overseas. It eventually made a profit in its 1945 reissue, and is considered [[List of films considered the best|one of the greatest animated films ever made]], with a [[List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes|100% rating]] on the website [[Rotten Tomatoes]]. The film and characters are still prevalent in popular culture, featuring at various [[Walt Disney Parks and Resorts|Disney parks]] and in other forms of entertainment. In 1994, ''Pinocchio'' was added to the United States [[National Film Registry]] for being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".<ref>{{Cite web|title=Complete National Film Registry Listing {{!}} Film Registry {{!}} National Film Preservation Board {{!}} Programs at the Library of Congress {{!}} Library of Congress|url=https://www.loc.gov/programs/national-film-preservation-board/film-registry/complete-national-film-registry-listing/|website=Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA|access-date=May 7, 2020}}</ref>
 
[[Kategorya:Mga Amerikanong pelikulang animasyon]]
In April 2015, a [[#Live-action adaptation|live-action adaptation]] had officially entered development.<ref>{{cite news|last=McNary|first=Dave |title=Disney Developing Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Movie |url=https://variety.com/2015/film/news/pinocchio-live-action-movie-disney-1201468686/ |work=Variety |accessdate=June 14, 2020 |language=en |date=8 April 2015}}</ref>
[[Kategorya:Mga pelikula ng 1940]]
 
[[Kategorya:Mga pelikula sa wikang Ingles]]
== Plot ==
[[Kategorya:Pelikulang animasyon Disney]]
<!-- PER WP:FILMPLOT, PLOT SUMMARIES FOR FEATURE FILMS SHOULD BE 400-700 WORDS. Current count is about 580 words. -->
[[Jiminy Cricket]] explains to the audience that he is going to tell a story of a wish coming true. His story begins in the Italian workshop of a woodworker named [[Geppetto]]. Jiminy watches as Geppetto finishes work on a wooden marionette whom he names [[Pinocchio]]. Before falling asleep, Geppetto makes a wish on a star that Pinocchio will be a [[Boy|real boy]]. During the night, a [[The Fairy with Turquoise Hair|Blue Fairy]] visits the workshop and brings Pinocchio to life, although he still remains a puppet. She informs him that if he proves himself brave, truthful, and unselfish, he will become a real boy, and assigns Jiminy to be his conscience.
 
Geppetto is shocked but ecstatic to discover his puppet is alive. The next day, on his way to school, Pinocchio is led astray by [[The Fox and the Cat|Honest John the Fox and his companion, Gideon the Cat]], who convinces him to join [[Stromboli (Pinocchio)|Stromboli]]'s puppet show, despite Jiminy's objections. Pinocchio becomes Stromboli's star attraction as a marionette who can sing and dance without strings. However, when Pinocchio wants to go home for the night, Stromboli locks him in a birdcage. Jiminy sneaks into Stromboli's cart but is unable to free his friend. The Blue Fairy appears and asks Pinocchio why he was not at school. Jiminy urges Pinocchio to tell the truth, but instead, he starts telling lies, which causes his nose to grow longer and longer. Pinocchio vows to be good from now on, and the Blue Fairy returns his nose to its original form and sets him free while warning him that this will be the last time she can help him.
 
Across town, Honest John and Gideon meet a [[The Coachman|coachman]] who promises to pay them money if they can find naughty little boys for him to take to [[Land of Toys|Pleasure Island]]. Encountering Pinocchio on his way home, they convince him that he needs to take a vacation there. On the way to Pleasure Island, he befriends [[Candlewick (Pinocchio character)|Lampwick]], a delinquent boy. Without rules or authority to enforce their activity, Pinocchio and the other boys soon engage in [[Tobacco smoking|smoking]] [[cigar]]s and [[cigarette]]s, [[gambling]], [[vandalism]], and getting [[drunk]], much to Jiminy's dismay. Later, while trying to get home, Jiminy discovers that the island hides a horrible curse: the boys brought to Pleasure Island transform into [[donkey]]s for their misbehavior and are sold to [[slave labor]] in the [[salt mines]] and [[circus]]. Jiminy runs back to warn Pinocchio, only to witness Lampwick transform into a donkey. With Jiminy's help, Pinocchio narrowly escapes the island with only donkey ears and a tail.
 
Upon returning home, Pinocchio and Jiminy find the workshop vacant. They soon get a letter from the Blue Fairy as a dove, stating that Geppetto had ventured out to sea to save Pinocchio from Pleasure Island, but was swallowed by [[The Terrible Dogfish|Monstro]], a terrible [[Sperm whale|giant whale]], and is now living in the belly of the beast. Determined to rescue his father, Pinocchio jumps into the sea accompanied by Jiminy. Pinocchio is soon swallowed by Monstro as well, where he finds Geppetto. Pinocchio devises a scheme to make Monstro sneeze, giving them a chance to escape. The scheme works, but the enraged whale chases them and smashes their raft. Pinocchio pulls Geppetto to safety in a cave before Monstro crashes into it. Geppetto, Figaro, Cleo, and Jiminy are washed up safely on a beach, but Pinocchio is apparently killed.
 
Back home, Geppetto, Jiminy, and the pets are inconsolable and mourn the loss of Pinocchio. The Blue Fairy, however, decides that Pinocchio has proven himself brave, truthful, and unselfish; to reward him, she reverses the Pleasure Island curse and turns him into a real human boy, reviving him in the process. Pinocchio awakens, much to everyone's joy when they find out he's now a real boy. As the group celebrates, Jiminy steps outside to thank the Fairy and is rewarded with a solid gold badge that certifies him as an official conscience as the film ends.
 
== Cast ==
*[[Dick Jones (actor)|Dick Jones]] as [[Pinocchio]], a wooden [[puppet]] carved by Geppetto, and turned into a living puppet by the Blue Fairy.
*[[Cliff Edwards]] as [[Jiminy Cricket]], a cheerful and wisecracking [[cricket (insect)|cricket]], who acts as Pinocchio's "conscience", and the partial narrator of the story.
*[[Christian Rub]] as [[Geppetto]], a kind and elderly [[Wood carving|wood-carver]], who creates Pinocchio, and wishes for him to become a real boy.
**[[Figaro (Disney)|Figaro the cat]] and Cleo the goldfish are Geppetto's pets. Figaro is a spoiled cat who is prone to jealousy. Cleo is a flirty little goldfish with a habit of being Figaro's counsellor. [[Clarence Nash]] provided Figaro's vocal effects.
*[[Walter Catlett]] as [[The Fox and the Cat|"Honest" John Worthington Foulfellow]], a dishonest, deceptive and greedy [[anthropomorphism|anthropomorphic]] [[red fox]] who cons Pinocchio twice in the film.
**[[The Fox and the Cat|"Giddy" Gideon the Cat]], Honest John's mute and bumbling anthropomorphic [[cat|feline]] sidekick. He was originally intended to be voiced by [[Mel Blanc]] of [[Looney Tunes]] fame (in his second work for Disney until his final work in ''[[Who Framed Roger Rabbit]]''), but the film-makers removed his dialogue from the script in favour of a mute performance just like [[Seven Dwarfs#Disney Dwarfs|Dopey]] in ''[[Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)|Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs]]'' and the circus elephant title character [[Dumbo]],<ref name="ReferenceA"/> however, Gideon's hiccups were provided by Blanc.<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
*[[Charles Judels]] as [[Mangiafuoco|Stromboli]], a large, evil, cruel, corrupt, rude, arrogant, and bearded Italian puppet-maker, who forces Pinocchio to perform onstage in order to make money. He speaks with an [[Italian language|Italian]] accent, and curses in Italian when he gets angry, though he is identified as a [[Romani people in Italy|Gypsy]]. He is the only character of the film to be part of the official [[Disney Villains]] line-up.
**Judels also voiced the cruel and wicked [[The Coachman|Coachman]], owner and operator of Pleasure Island, who enjoys turning unruly boys into donkeys and selling them off for labour.
*[[Evelyn Venable]] as [[The Fairy with Turquoise Hair|The Blue Fairy]], who brings Pinocchio to life, and turns him into a real boy at the end of the film.
*[[Frankie Darro]] as [[Candlewick (Pinocchio character)|Lampwick]], a naughty boy that Pinocchio befriends on his way to Pleasure Island. He is turned into a donkey on Pleasure Island.
*[[Stuart Buchanan]] as the Carnival Barker, the announcer heard on Pleasure Island.
 
== Production ==
=== Development ===
In September 1937, during the production of ''[[Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)|Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs]]'', animator [[Norm Ferguson (animator)|Norman Ferguson]] brought a translated version of [[Carlo Collodi]]'s 1883 Italian children's novel ''[[The Adventures of Pinocchio]]'' to the attention of [[Walt Disney]]. After reading the book, "Walt was busting his guts with enthusiasm" as Ferguson later recalled. Disney then commissioned storyboard artist [[Bianca Majolie]] to write a new story outline for the book, but after reading it, he felt her outline was too faithful.{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=291}} ''Pinocchio'' was intended to be the studio's third feature, after ''[[Bambi]]''. However, due to difficulties with ''Bambi'' (adapting the story and animating the animals realistically), Disney announced that ''Bambi'' would be postponed while ''Pinocchio'' would move ahead in production. [[Ben Sharpsteen]] was then re-assigned to supervise the production while [[Jack Kinney]] was given directional reins.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=236}}{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=291}}
 
=== Writing and design ===
Unlike ''Snow White'', which was a short story that the writers could expand and experiment with, ''Pinocchio'' was based on a novel with a very fixed story. Therefore, the story went through drastic changes before reaching its final incarnation.<ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite AV media notes|url=https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=RdUx1RNoPkA|title=No Strings Attached: The Making of Pinocchio|year=2009|publisher=Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment}}</ref> In the original novel, Pinocchio is a cold, rude, ungrateful, inhuman creature that often repels sympathy and only learns his lessons by means of brutal torture.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=237}} The writers decided to modernize the character and depict him similar to [[Edgar Bergen]]'s dummy [[Charlie McCarthy]],{{sfn|Gabler|1999|p=294}} but equally as rambunctious as the puppet in the book. The story was still being developed in the early stages of animation.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=237}}
{{multiple image
|direction = horizontal
|align = right
|footer = Early scenes animated by [[Ollie Johnston]] and [[Frank Thomas (animator)|Frank Thomas]] show that Pinocchio's design was exactly like that of a real wooden puppet with a long pointed nose, a peaked cap and bare wooden hands.<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
|image1 = OLLIE1989.jpg
|width1 = 154
|alt1 =
|caption1 =[[Ollie Johnston]]
|image2 =FrankThomas1974.jpg
|width2 = 168
|alt2 =
|caption2 =[[Frank Thomas (animator)|Frank Thomas]]
}}
Early scenes animated by [[Frank Thomas (animator)|Frank Thomas]] and [[Ollie Johnston]] show that Pinocchio's design was exactly like that of a real wooden puppet with a long pointed nose, a peaked cap and bare wooden hands.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=237–8}} Disney, however, was not impressed with the work that was being done on the film. He felt that no one could really sympathize with such a character and called for an immediate halt in production.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=237}}{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=294}} [[Fred Moore (animator)|Fred Moore]] redesigned the character slightly to make him more appealing, but the design still retained a wooden feel.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=238}} Young and upcoming animator [[Milt Kahl]] felt that Thomas, Johnston and Moore were "rather obsessed with the idea of this boy being a wooden puppet" and felt that they should "forget that he was a puppet and get a cute little boy; you can always draw the wooden joints and make him a wooden puppet afterwards". Co-supervising director [[Hamilton Luske]] suggested to Kahl that he should demonstrate his beliefs by animating a test sequence.{{sfn|Canemaker|2001|p=137}} Kahl showed Disney a test scene in which Pinocchio is underwater looking for his father.{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=306}} From this scene, Kahl re-envisioned the character by making him look more like a real boy, with a child's [[Tyrolean hat]] and standard cartoon character four-fingered (or three and a thumb) hands with [[Mickey Mouse]]-type gloves on them.{{sfn|Barrier|2008|pp=140–1}} The only parts of Pinocchio that still looked more or less like a puppet were his arms, legs and his little button wooden nose. Disney embraced Kahl's scene and immediately urged the writers to evolve Pinocchio into a more innocent, naïve, somewhat coy personality that reflected Kahl's design.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=239}}
 
However, Disney discovered that the new [[Pinocchio]] was too helpless and was far too often led astray by deceiving characters. Therefore, in the summer of 1938, Disney and his story team established the character of the cricket. Originally, the cricket was only a minor character that Pinocchio killed by squashing him with a mallet and that later returned as a ghost. Disney dubbed the cricket "Jiminy", and made him into a character that would try to guide Pinocchio into the right decisions.{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=305}} Once the character was expanded, he was depicted as a realistic cricket with toothed legs and waving antennae, but Disney wanted something more likable. [[Ward Kimball]] had spent several months animating two sequences—a soup-eating musical number and a bed-building sequence—in ''Snow White'', which was cut from the film due to pacing reasons. Kimball was about to quit until Disney rewarded him for his work by promoting him to the supervising animator of Jiminy Cricket.{{sfn|Canemaker|2001|pp=99–101}} Kimball then conjured up the design for Jiminy Cricket, whom he described as a little man with an egg head and no ears.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=240}} Jiminy "was a cricket because we called him a cricket," Kimball later joked.{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=305}}
 
=== Casting ===
[[File:Jackie Kelk Dick Jones Henry Aldrich circa 1943 1944.JPG|thumb|left| [[Dickie Jones]] (right) voices Pinocchio in the film.]]
Due to the huge success of ''Snow White'', Walt Disney wanted more famous voices for ''Pinocchio'', which marked the first time an animated film had used celebrities as voice actors.{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=304}} He cast popular singer [[Cliff Edwards]], also known as "Ukelele Ike", as Jiminy Cricket.<ref>{{cite web|first=William |last=Ruhlmann |url=https://www.allmusic.com/artist/cliff-ukelele-ike-edwards-mn0000153869/biography |title=Cliff "Ukelele Ike" Edwards &#124; Biography |publisher=AllMusic |date= |accessdate=February 24, 2014}}</ref> Disney rejected the idea of having an adult play Pinocchio and insisted that the character be voiced by a real child. He cast 11-year-old child actor [[Dickie Jones]], who had previously been in [[Frank Capra]]'s ''[[Mr. Smith Goes to Washington]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cbsnews.com/news/almanac-pinocchio/ |title=Almanac: "Pinocchio" |publisher=CBS News |date=February 23, 1940 |accessdate=February 24, 2014}}</ref> He also cast [[Frankie Darro]] as Lampwick, [[Walter Catlett]] as Foulfellow the Fox, [[Evelyn Venable]] as the Blue Fairy, [[Charles Judels]] as both the villainous Stromboli and the Coachman, and [[Christian Rub]] as Geppetto, whose design was even a caricature of Rub.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=267–8}}
 
Another voice actor recruited was [[Mel Blanc]], best remembered for voicing many of the characters in [[Warner Bros.]] cartoon shorts. Blanc was hired to perform the voice of Gideon the Cat. However, it was eventually decided that Gideon would be mute, so all of Blanc's recorded dialogue was subsequently deleted except for a solitary hiccup, which was heard three times in the finished film.{{citation needed|date=September 2020}}
 
=== Animation ===
{{multiple image
|direction = vertical
|align = right
|width = 200
|footer =
|image1 =Jiminy Cricket.png
|alt1 =
|caption1 =[[Jiminy Cricket]]
|image2 =Stromboli in Walt Disney's Pinocchio.png
|alt2 =
|caption2 =[[Mangiafuoco#In other media|Stromboli]]
}}
Animation on the film began in January 1938, but work on Pinocchio's animation was discontinued as the writers sought to re-work his characterization and the film's narrative structure. However, animation on the film's supporting characters started in April 1938.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=237–8}} Animation would not resume again with the revised story until September.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=239}}
 
During the production of the film, story artist [[Joe Grant]] formed a character model department, which would be responsible for building three-dimensional clay models of the characters in the film, known as maquettes. These models were then given to the staff to observe how a character should be drawn from any given angle desired by the artists.{{sfn|Gabler|2006|p=306}} The model makers also built working models of Geppetto's cuckoo clocks, as well as Stromboli's gypsy wagon and the Coachman's carriage. However, owing to the difficulty animating a realistic moving vehicle, the artists filmed the carriage maquettes on a miniature set using [[stop motion animation]]. Then, each frame of the animation was transferred onto [[Cel|animation cels]] using an early version of a [[Xerox]]. The cels were then painted on the back and overlaid on top of background images with the cels of the characters to create the completed shot on the [[rostrum camera]]. Like ''Snow White'', live-action footage was shot for ''Pinocchio'' with the actors playing the scenes in pantomime, supervised by Luske.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=260–1}} Rather than tracing, which would result in stiff unnatural movement, the animators used the footage as a guide for animation by studying human movement and then incorporating some poses into the animation (though slightly exaggerated).{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=260–1}}
 
''Pinocchio'' was a groundbreaking achievement in the area of effects animation. In contrast to the [[character animators]] who concentrate on the acting of the characters, effects animators create everything that moves other than the characters. This includes vehicles, machinery and natural effects such as rain, lightning, snow, smoke, shadows and water, as well as the fantasy or science-fiction type effects like Fairy Dust. The influential abstract animator [[Oskar Fischinger]], who mainly worked on ''[[Fantasia (1940 film)|Fantasia]]'' contributed to the effects animation of the Blue Fairy's wand.{{sfn|Moritz|2004|p=84}} Effects animator Sandy Strother kept a diary about his year-long animation of the water effects, which included splashes, ripples, bubbles, waves and the illusion of being underwater. To help give depth to the ocean, the animators put more detail into the waves on the water surface in the foreground, and put in less detail as the surface moved further back. After the animation was traced onto cels, the assistant animators would trace it once more with blue and black pencil leads to give the waves a sculptured look.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=262}} To save time and money, the splashes were kept impressionistic. These techniques enabled ''Pinocchio'' to be one of the first animated films to have highly realistic effects animation. Ollie Johnston remarked "I think that's one of the finest things the studio's ever done, as Frank Thomas said, 'The water looks so real a person can drown in it, and they do.'"
 
== Soundtrack ==
{{Main|Pinocchio (soundtrack)}}
The songs in ''Pinocchio'' were composed by [[Leigh Harline]] with lyrics by [[Ned Washington]]. [[Leigh Harline]] and [[Paul Smith (composer)|Paul J. Smith]] composed the [[incidental music]] score.<ref name="allmusic1">{{cite web|url=https://www.allmusic.com/album/pinocchio-rca-mw0000308863 |title=Pinocchio [RCA&#93; - Original Soundtrack &#124; Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards |publisher=AllMusic |date= |accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref> The soundtrack was first released on February 9, 1940.<ref name="allmusic1"/> Jiminy Cricket's song, "[[When You Wish Upon A Star]]", became a major hit and is still identified with the film, and later as the [[theme song]] of [[The Walt Disney Company]] itself.{{sfn|Roberts|2006|p=134}} The soundtrack won an [[Academy Award]] for [[Academy Award for Best Original Score|Best Original Score]].{{sfn|Roberts|2006|p=134}}
 
== Themes ==
[[File:Pinochio2 1940.jpg|thumb|left|Commentator Nicholas Sammond considers ''Pinocchio'' to be a metaphor for American child rearing in the mid-20th century.]]
 
M. Keith Booker considers the film to be the most down-to-earth of the Disney animated films despite its theme song and magic, and notes that the film's protagonist has to work to prove his worth, which he remarked seemed "more in line with the ethos of capitalism" than most of the Disney films.{{sfn|Booker|2010|p=11}} Claudia Mitchell and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh believe that the male protagonists of films like ''Pinocchio'' and ''Bambi'' (1942) were purposefully constructed by Disney to appeal to both boys and girls.{{sfn|Mitchell|Reid-Walsh|2008|p=48}} Mark I. Pinsky said that it is "a simple morality tale—cautionary and schematic—ideal for moral instruction, save for some of its darker moments", and noted that the film is a favorite of parents of young children.{{sfn|Pinsky|2004|p=28}}
 
Nicolas Sammond argues that the film is "an apt metaphor for the metaphysics of midcentury American child-rearing" and that the film is "ultimately an assimilationist fable".{{sfn|Honeyman|2013|p=29}} He considered it to be the central Disney film and the most strongly middle class, intended to relay the message that indulging in "the pleasures of the working class, of vaudeville, or of pool halls and amusement parks, led to a life as a beast of burden". For Sammond, the purpose of ''Pinocchio'' is to help convey to children the "middle-class virtues of deferred gratification, self-denial, thrift, and perseverance, naturalized as the experience of the most average American".{{sfn|Booker|2010|pp=11–12}}
 
Author and illustrator [[Maurice Sendak]], who saw the film in theaters in 1940, called the film superior to Collodi's novel in its depiction of children and growing up. "The Pinocchio in the film is not the unruly, sulking, vicious, devious (albeit still charming) marionette that Collodi created. Neither is he an innately evil, doomed-to-calamity child of sin. He is, rather, both lovable and loved. Therein lies Disney's triumph. His Pinocchio is a mischievous, innocent and very naive little wooden boy. What makes our anxiety over his fate endurable is a reassuring sense that Pinocchio is loved for himself -- and not for what he should or shouldn't be. Disney has corrected a terrible wrong. Pinocchio, he says, is good; his "badness" is only a matter of inexperience," and also that "Pinocchio's wish to be a real boy remains the film's underlying theme, but "becoming a real boy" now signifies the wish to grow up, not the wish to be good."<ref>{{cite news|last=Sendak|first=Maurice|authorlink=Maurice Sendak|title= Walt Disney's Triumph - The Art of Pinocchio|work=[[The Washington Post]]|date=October 7, 1988|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/entertainment/books/1988/07/10/walt-disneys-triumph-the-art-of-pinocchio/0f669be4-d61c-4b71-9bc9-e58900c2aa54/}}</ref>
 
== Home media ==
On July 16, 1985, it was released on home video and [[LaserDisc]] in North America for the first time as part of the [[Walt Disney Classics]] label, the second title with the Classics label after ''[[Robin Hood (1973 film)|Robin Hood]]'' which was released the previous December.<ref name=ww/> It would become the best-selling home video title of the year selling 130–150,000 units at $80 each.<ref>{{cite magazine|magazine=[[Variety (magazine)|Variety]]|page=10|date=January 29, 1986|title=Disney Vid Points 'Sword' At March Release Schedule}}</ref> It was re-issued on October 14, 1986 to advertise the home video debut of ''[[Sleeping Beauty (1959 film)|Sleeping Beauty]]''. It was then released on VHS in the UK in 1988 for the first time.<ref name="chicagotribune1985">{{cite news |url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1985-07-12/features/8502150370_1_first-seven-titles-cassette-sales-and-rentals-richard-fried |title=Disney Releases 'Pinocchio' Video |newspaper=Chicago Tribune |date=July 12, 1985 |accessdate=January 14, 2016}}</ref> The digital restoration that was completed for the 1992 cinema re-issue was released on VHS on March 26, 1993,<ref>{{cite news|last=Stevens|first=Mary|url=https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1993-03-19-9303200387-story.html|title='Pinocchio' Is The Winner by a Nose|work=Chicago Tribune|date=March 19, 1993|accessdate=September 19, 2020}}</ref> followed by its fourth VHS release and first release on [[Walt Disney Home Entertainment#Disney DVD|Disney DVD]] as the 60th Anniversary Edition on October 25, 1999.<ref name="amazon1">{{cite web|url=https://www.amazon.com/Pinocchio-Gold-Classic-Collection-VHS/dp/B00001QGIQ|title=Pinocchio (Gold Classic Collection) [VHS&#93;: Dickie Jones, Christian Rub, Mel Blanc, Don Brodie, Walter Catlett, Marion Darlington, Frankie Darro, Cliff Edwards, Charles Judels, Patricia Page, Evelyn Venable, Ben Sharpsteen, Bill Roberts, Hamilton Luske, Jack Kinney, Norman Ferguson, T. Hee, Wilfred Jackson, Aurelius Battaglia, Bill Peet: Movies & TV |date= |accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref>
 
The film was re-issued on DVD and one final time on VHS as part of the Walt Disney Gold Classics Collection release on March 7, 2000.<ref>{{cite press release|url=https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Imagination+for+a+Lifetime+--+Disney+Titles+All+the+Time%3B+Walt+Disney...-a058460870| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180522180912/https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Imagination+for+a+Lifetime+--+Disney+Titles+All+the+Time%3B+Walt+Disney...-a058460870|title=Imagination for a Lifetime -- Disney Titles All the Time; Walt Disney Home Video Debuts the "Gold Classic Collection"; An Animated Masterpiece Every Month in 2000.|url-status=dead|location=Burbank, California|agency=Business Wire|publisher=TheFreeLibrary.com|archive-date=May 22, 2018|date=January 6, 2000|accessdate=September 19, 2020}}</ref> Along the film, the VHS edition also contained a making-of documentary while the DVD had the film's original theatrical trailer as supplemental features.<ref>{{cite web|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20000815083022/http://disney.go.com/disneyvideos/disneygold/pin.html|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyvideos/disneygold/pin.html||title=Pinocchio&nbsp;— Disney Gold Collection|archive-date=August 15, 2000|accessdate=September 19, 2020|url-status=dead}}</ref> The Gold Classic Collection release was returned to the [[Disney Vault]] on January 31, 2002.<ref>{{Cite press release|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Time+Is+Running+Out+...+Four+of+Disney%27s+Greatest+Animated+Classics...-a082072661|title=Time Is Running Out&nbsp;... Four of Disney's Greatest Animated Classics Are Disappearing into the Vault|date=January 23, 2002|accessdate=|website=TheFreeLibrary.com|agency=[[PR Newswire]]|publisher=Walt Disney Press Release|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160315090516/http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Time+Is+Running+Out+...+Four+of+Disney's+Greatest+Animated+Classics...-a082072661|archive-date=March 15, 2016}}</ref>
 
A special edition VHS and DVD of the film was released in the United Kingdom on March 3, 2003.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.blu-ray.com/dvd/Pinocchio-DVD/102748/|title=Pinocchio DVD Release Date March 3, 2003|via=www.blu-ray.com}}</ref> The fourth DVD release and first [[Blu-ray Disc]] release (the second Blu-ray in the Walt Disney Platinum Editions series) was released on March 10, 2009.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.blu-ray.com/movies/Pinocchio-Blu-ray/754/ |title=Pinocchio Blu-ray: 70th Anniversary Platinum Edition |publisher=Blu-ray.com |date= |accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref> Like the 2008 ''[[Sleeping Beauty (1959 film)|Sleeping Beauty]]'' Blu-ray release, the ''Pinocchio'' Blu-ray package featured a new restoration by [[Lowry Digital]] in a two-disc Blu-ray set, with a bonus DVD version of the film also included.<ref name="dvdempire.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.dvdempire.com/1433163/pinocchio-70th-anniversary-platinum-edition-movie.html |title=Pinocchio: 70th Anniversary - Platinum Edition (DVD 1940) |publisher=DVD Empire |date= |accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref> This set returned to the Disney Vault on April 30, 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://disneydvd.disney.go.com/pinocchio.html |title=Pinocchio &#124; Disney Movies |publisher=Disneydvd.disney.go.com |date= |accessdate=February 4, 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120306082736/http://disneydvd.disney.go.com/pinocchio.html |archivedate=March 6, 2012}}</ref> A Signature Edition was released on Digital HD on January 10, 2017 and was followed by a Blu-ray/DVD combo pack on January 31, 2017.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.insidethemagic.net/2016/11/d23-pinnochio-is-joining-the-walt-disney-signature-collection-on-january-10/ |title=D23: Pinocchio is joining the Walt Disney Signature Collection on January 10 |first=JeniLynn |last=Knopp |publisher=Insidethemagic.net |date=November 19, 2016 |accessdate=November 19, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://ohmy.disney.com/news/2016/11/19/breaking-pinocchio-joins-the-walt-disney-signature-collection/ |title=BREAKING: PINOCCHIO TO JOIN THE WALT DISNEY SIGNATURE COLLECTION |author=Oh My Disney Contributor |publisher=Ohmy.disney.com |date=November 19, 2016 |accessdate=November 19, 2016}}</ref>
 
== Reception ==
=== Initial release ===
[[File:Pinocchio title card.png|thumb|right|''Pinocchio'' title card.]]
 
[[Frank Nugent|Frank S. Nugent]] of ''[[The New York Times]]'' gave the film five out of five stars, saying "''Pinocchio'' is here at last, is every bit as fine as we had prayed it would be—if not finer—and that it is as gay and clever and delightful a fantasy as any well-behaved youngster or jaded oldster could hope to see."<ref>{{cite news|last=Nugent|first=Frank S.|date=February 8, 1940|title=The Screen in Review; 'Pinocchio,' Walt Disney's Long-Awaited Successor to 'Snow White,' Has Its Premiere at the Center Theatre|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1940/02/08/archives/the-screen-in-review-pinocchio-walt-disneys-longawaited-successor.html|url-status=live|accessdate=February 25, 2014}}</ref> ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' gave the film a positive review, saying "In craftsmanship and delicacy of drawing and coloring, in the articulation of its dozens of characters, in the greater variety and depth of its photographic effects, it tops the high standard ''Snow White'' set. The charm, humor and loving care with which it treats its inanimate characters puts it in a class by itself."<ref>{{cite magazine |url=https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,763260,00.html |title=Cinema: The New Pictures |magazine=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |volume=35 |number=9 |date=February 26, 1940 |accessdate=February 25, 2014 |url-status=live|url-access=subscription}}</ref> ''[[Variety (magazine)|Variety]]'' praised the animation as superior to ''Snow White''{{'}}s writing the "[a]nimation is so smooth that cartoon figures carry impression of real persons and settings rather than drawings to onlooker." In summary, they felt ''Pinocchio'' "will stand on [its] own as a substantial piece of entertainment for young and old, providing attention through its perfection in animation and photographic effects.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://archive.org/details/variety137-1940-01/page/n337/mode/2up|title=Film Reviews: Pinocchio|work=Variety|page=14|date=January 31, 1940|accessdate=September 16, 2020|url-status=live|via=Internet Archive}}</ref> ''[[The Hollywood Reporter]]'' wrote "''Pinocchio'' is entertainment for every one of every age, so completely charming and delightful that there is profound regret when it reaches the final fade-out. Since comparisons will be inevitable, it may as well be said at once that, from a technical standpoint, conception and production, this picture is infinitely superior to ''Snow White''."<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/pinocchio-review-movie-1940-1278957|title='Pinocchio': THR's 1940 Review|work=The Hollywood Reporter|url-status=live|date=February 23, 1940|accessdate=September 16, 2020}}</ref> The film won the [[Academy Award]]s for [[Academy Award for Best Original Song|Best Original Song]] and [[Academy Award for Original Music Score|Best Original Score]], the first Disney film to win either.{{sfn|Roberts|2006|p=134}}
 
Initially, ''Pinocchio'' was not a box-office success.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=269–73}} The box office returns from the film's initial release were both below ''Snow White's'' unprecedented success and below studio expectations.{{sfn|Thomas|1994|p=161}} Of the film's $2.6&nbsp;million negative cost – twice the cost of ''Snow White''{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=266}} – Disney only recouped $1&nbsp;million by late 1940, with studio reports of the film's final original box office take varying between $1.4&nbsp;million and $1.9&nbsp;million.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=318, 602}} Animation historian [[Michael Barrier (historian)|Michael Barrier]] notes that ''Pinocchio'' returned rentals of less than one million by September 1940, and in its first public annual report, Walt Disney Productions [[Charge-off|charged off]] a $1&nbsp;million loss to the film.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|p=272}} Barrier relays that a 1947 ''Pinocchio'' balance sheet listed total receipts to the studio of $1,423,046.78. This was primarily due to the fact that [[World War II]] and its aftermath had cut off the European and Asian markets overseas, and hindered the international success of ''Pinocchio'' and other Disney releases during the early and mid-1940s.{{sfn|Barrier|1999|pp=269–73, 602}} [[Joe Grant]] recalled Walt Disney being "very, very depressed" about ''Pinocchio's'' initial returns at the box office.{{sfn|Thomas|1994|p=161}} The distributor RKO recorded a loss of $94,000 for the film from worldwide rentals of $3,238,000.<ref name="Jewell">{{cite news | title=Richard B. Jewell's RKO film grosses, 1929–51: The C. J. Trevlin Ledger: A comment. | publisher=Historical Journal of Film, Radio and television, Volume 14, Issue 1, 1994.}}</ref>
 
=== Reissues ===
With the re-release of ''[[Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)|Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs]]'' in 1944 came the tradition of re-releasing Disney films every seven to ten years.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=releases&id=pinocchio.htm |title=Pinocchio (1940) - Release Summary |publisher=Box Office Mojo |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> ''Pinocchio'' was theatrically re-released in 1945, 1954, 1962, 1971, 1978, 1984, and 1992. RKO handled the first two reissues in 1945 and 1954, while Disney itself reissued the film from 1962 on through its [[Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures|Buena Vista Distribution]] division. The 1992 re-issue was digitally restored by cleaning and removing scratches from the original negatives one frame at a time, eliminating soundtrack distortions, and revitalizing the color.<ref>{{cite news|last=Hunter|first=Stephen|url=http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1992-06-25/features/1992177211_1_pinocchio-comandini-flaw|title='Pinocchio' returns The restored print looks better than the original|work=The Baltimore Sun|date=June 25, 1992|accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref>
 
Despite its initial struggles at the box office, a series of reissues in the years after World War II proved more successful, and allowed the film to turn a profit. By 1973, the film had earned rentals of $13 million in the United States and Canada from the initial 1940 release and four reissues.{{Sfn|Wasko|2001|p=137}}<ref>{{cite magazine|magazine=Variety|date=January 9, 1974|page=23|title=Updated All-Time Film Rental Champs}}</ref> After the 1978 reissue, the rentals had increased to $19.9 million<ref>{{cite magazine|magazine=Variety|date=January 11, 1983|page=16|title=All-Time Film Rental Champs}}</ref> from a total gross of $39 million.<ref name=mojo>{{cite web|url=https://www.boxofficemojo.com/title/tt0032910/?ref_=bo_rl_ti|title=Pinocchio|website=[[Box Office Mojo]]|accessdate=December 20, 2019}}</ref> The 1984 reissue grossed $26.4 million in the U.S. and Canada,<ref>{{cite news|last=Harris|first=Kathryn|url=https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1992-06-12-fi-344-story.html|title=A Nose for Profit: 'Pinocchio' Release to Test Truth of Video Sales Theory|work=Los Angeles Times|date=June 12, 1992|accessdate=September 19, 2020}}</ref> bringing its total gross there to $65.4 million<ref name=mojo/> and $145 million worldwide.<ref name=ww>{{cite magazine|magazine=Variety|date=May 9, 1985|page=1|title=Disney Goes To Vault For Its 'Pinocchio' HV|last=Bierbaum|first=Tom}}</ref> The 1992 reissue grossed $18.9 million in the U.S. and Canada bringing ''Pinocchio'''s lifetime gross to $84.3&nbsp;million at the U.S. and Canadian box office.<ref name=mojo/>
 
=== Modern acclaim ===
On the [[review aggregator]] website [[Rotten Tomatoes]], the film has the website's highest rating of 100%, meaning every single one of the 52 reviews of the film, from contemporaneous reviews to modern re-appraisals, on the site are positive, with an average rating of 9.1/10.<ref name="Pinocchio 1940">{{cite web|url=https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/pinocchio_1940/|title=Pinocchio (1940)|work=[[Rotten Tomatoes]]|accessdate=February 29, 2020}}</ref> The general consensus of the film on the site is "Ambitious, adventurous, and sometimes frightening, ''Pinocchio'' arguably represents the pinnacle of Disney's collected works - it's beautifully crafted and emotionally resonant.".<ref name="Pinocchio 1940"/> On [[Metacritic]], ''Pinocchio'' has a weighted score of 99 out of 100 based on 17 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".<ref>{{cite web|title=Pinocchio (1940)|url=https://www.metacritic.com/movie/pinocchio-1940|work=Metacritic|access-date=April 3, 2020}}</ref>
 
Many film historians consider this to be the film that most closely approaches technical perfection of all the Disney animated features.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/movies/pinocchio/pinocchio.html |title=Pinocchio - Disney Movies History |date=August 4, 2003 |accessdate=February 24, 2014 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20030804101353/http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/movies/pinocchio/pinocchio.html |archivedate=August 4, 2003}}</ref> Film critic [[Leonard Maltin]] said, "with ''Pinocchio'', Disney reached not only the height of his powers, but the apex of what many critics consider to be the realm of the animated cartoon."<ref>{{cite book|last=Maltin|first=Leonard|chapter=Pinocchio|title=The Disney Films|year=1973|p=37|location=New York|publisher=Crown Publishers|isbn=978-0517177419}}</ref>
 
In 1994, ''Pinocchio'' was added to the United States [[National Film Registry]] as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1994/11/15/movies/25-films-added-to-national-registry.html|title=25 Films Added to National Registry|work=The New York Times|page=C20|date=November 15, 1994|accessdate=September 20, 2020}}</ref> Filmmaker [[Terry Gilliam]] selected it as one of the ten best animated films of all time in a 2001 article written for ''[[The Guardian]]''<ref name="The Guardian">{{cite news|last=Gilliam|first=Terry|title=Terry Gilliam Picks the Ten Best Animated Films of All Time|work=The Guardian|date=April 27, 2001|url=https://www.theguardian.com/film/2001/apr/27/culture.features1|accessdate=June 15, 2015}}</ref> and in 2005, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' named it one of the 100 best films of the last 80 years, and then in June 2011 named it the best animated movie of "The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films".<ref>{{cite news|last=Corliss|first=Richard|url=http://entertainment.time.com/2011/06/23/the-25-all-time-best-animated-films/slide/pinocchio-1940-2/|title=Pinocchio &#124; The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films|work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]]|date=June 21, 2011|accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref>
 
In June 2008, the [[American Film Institute]] revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. ''Pinocchio'' was acknowledged as the [[AFI's 10 Top 10|second best film]] in the animation genre, after ''Snow White''.<ref>{{cite news|publisher=[[American Film Institute]]|title=AFI's 10 Top 10|date=June 17, 2008|url=http://www.afi.com/10top10/animation.html|accessdate=June 18, 2008}}</ref> It was nominated for the [[AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies]],<ref>{{cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=Movies_Ballot_06|url=http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/Movies_ballot_06.pdf|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170326155425if_/http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/Movies_ballot_06.pdf|archive-date=March 26, 2017|accessdate=February 4, 2014|website=}}</ref>
and received further nominations for their [[AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills|Thrills]]<ref>{{cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=400 Nominees for AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills|url=http://www.listology.com/guardianryoga/list/400-nominees-afis-100-years-100-thrills|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160305042844/http://www.listology.com/guardianryoga/list/400-nominees-afis-100-years-100-thrills|archive-date=March 5, 2016|accessdate=February 4, 2014|website=|publisher=Listology}}</ref> and [[AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains|Heroes and Villains]] (Stromboli) lists.<ref>{{cite web|last=|first=|date=June 20, 2007|title=AFI'S 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains|url=http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/handv400.pdf|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170623094143if_/http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/handv400.pdf|archive-date=June 23, 2017|accessdate=February 4, 2014|website=|publisher=American Film Institute}}</ref> The song "[[When You Wish Upon A Star]]" ranked number 7 on their [[AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs|100 Songs list]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.afi.com/100years/songs.aspx|title=AFI's 100 YEARS...100 SONGS|publisher= American Film Institute|date=June 22, 2004|accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref> and the film ranked 38th in the [[AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers|100 Cheers]] list.<ref>{{cite web|last=|first=|date=June 20, 2007|title=AFI'S 100 Years... 100 Cheers|url=http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/cheers300.pdf|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180612140706if_/http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/cheers300.pdf|archive-date=June 12, 2018|accessdate=February 4, 2014|website=|publisher=American Film Institute}}</ref> The quote "A lie keeps growing and growing until it's as plain as the nose on your face" was nominated for the [[AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes|Movie Quotes]] list,<ref>{{cite web|last=|first=|date=June 20, 2007|title=AFI'S 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes|url=http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/quotes400.pdf|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190412113016if_/http://www.afi.com/Docs/100years/quotes400.pdf|archive-date=April 12, 2019|accessdate=February 4, 2014|website=|publisher=American Film Institute}}</ref> and the film received further nomination in the [[AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals]] list.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.afi.com/100years/musicals.aspx|title=AFI's 100 YEARS OF MUSICALS|publisher= American Film Institute|date=September 3, 2006|accessdate=February 4, 2014}}</ref>
 
On June 29, 2018, ''Pinocchio'' was named the 13th best Disney animated film by [[IGN]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.ign.com/articles/2018/06/29/the-25-best-disney-animated-movies|title=The 25 Best Disney Animated Movies|publisher=IGN|accessdate=June 29, 2018}}</ref>
 
== Legacy ==
[[File:Pinokio magic kingdom.jpg|thumb|right|[[Geppetto#Disney version|Geppetto]] and [[Pinocchio#Disney version|Pinocchio]] at [[Magic Kingdom]].]]
[[File:Pinocchio's village.jpg|thumb|right|Pinocchio's village, [[Disneyland]].]]
 
In 1987, [[Filmation]] released a "thinly-veiled" animated sequel to ''Pinocchio'', titled ''[[Pinocchio and the Emperor of the Night]]''. Set a year after Pinocchio became a real boy, the movie received mainly negative reviews from critics and was a commercial failure. Disney sued Filmation for copyright infringement, but Filmation won the lawsuit on the grounds that Collodi's work is in the public domain.{{sfn|Beck|2005}}
 
Many of ''Pinocchio''{{'}}s characters are [[costumed character]]s at [[Walt Disney Parks and Resorts#Disney resorts|Disney parks]].<ref name="disneyland">{{cite web|url=https://disneyland.disney.go.com/attractions/disneyland/pinocchios-daring-journey/ |title=Pinocchio's Daring Journey &#124; Rides & Attractions &#124; Disneyland Park &#124; Disneyland Resort |publisher=Disneyland.disney.go.com |date=May 25, 1983|access-date=February 4, 2014}}</ref> [[Pinocchio's Daring Journey]] is a popular ride at [[Disneyland|the original Disneyland]],<ref name="disneyland" /> [[Tokyo Disneyland]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tokyodisneyresort.co.jp/tdl/english/7land/fantasy/atrc_pinocchio.html |title=Tokyo Disney Resort |publisher=Tokyodisneyresort.co.jp |date= |access-date=February 4, 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080819051421/http://www.tokyodisneyresort.co.jp/tdl/english/7land/fantasy/atrc_pinocchio.html |archivedate=August 19, 2008}}</ref> and [[Disneyland Park (Paris)|Disneyland Park in Paris]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.disneylandparis.co.uk/attractions/disneyland-park/les-voyages-de-pinocchio/ |title=Disneyland Paris Rides &#124; Les Voyages de Pinocchio |publisher=Parks.disneylandparis.co.uk |date= |access-date=February 4, 2014}}</ref> Pinocchio Village Haus is a quick service restaurant at [[Walt Disney World]] that serves pizza and macaroni and cheese.<ref name="disney2">{{cite web|url=https://disneyworld.disney.go.com/dining/magic-kingdom/pinocchio-village-haus/ |title=Pinocchio Village Haus &#124; Walt Disney World Resort |publisher=Disneyworld.disney.go.com |date= |access-date=February 4, 2014}}</ref> There are similar quick-service restaurants at the Disneyland parks in [[Disneyland|Anaheim]] and [[Disneyland Park (Paris)|Paris]] as well, with almost identical names.<ref name="disney2" />
 
[[Disney on Ice]] starring ''Pinocchio'', toured internationally from 1987 to 1992.<ref name="cjonline1">{{cite web|last=Blankenship |first=Bill |url=http://cjonline.com/news/2013-12-01/disney-ice-brings-back-100-years-magic-expocentre |title=Disney on Ice brings back '100 Years of Magic' to Expocentre |publisher=CJOnline.com |date=December 1, 2013 |access-date=February 4, 2014}}</ref> A shorter version of the story is also presented in the current Disney on Ice production "One Hundred Years of Magic".<ref name="cjonline1" />
 
Aside from the Sega [[Sega Genesis|Genesis/Mega Drive]], [[Game Boy]], and [[Super Nintendo Entertainment System|SNES]] games based on the animated film, Geppetto and Pinocchio also appear as characters in the game ''[[Kingdom Hearts]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.amazon.co.uk/Disneys-Pinocchio-Mega-Drive/dp/B00004TMV9 |title=Disney's Pinocchio (Mega Drive): Amazon.co.uk: PC & Video Games |publisher=Amazon.co.uk |date= |access-date=February 4, 2014}}</ref> The inside of Monstro is also featured as one of the worlds.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web|url=https://www.ign.com/wikis/kingdom-hearts-3d-dream-drop-distance/Jiminy_Cricket |title=Jiminy Cricket - Kingdom Hearts 3D Wiki Guide |publisher=IGN |date=July 31, 2012|access-date=February 4, 2014}}</ref> Jiminy Cricket appears as well, acting as a recorder, keeping a journal of the game's progress in ''Kingdom Hearts'', ''[[Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories]]'', and, ''[[Kingdom Hearts II]]''.<ref name="autogenerated1" /> Pinocchio's home world was slated to appear in ''[[Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days]]'', but was omitted due to time restrictions, although talk-sprites of Pinocchio, Geppetto, Honest John and Gideon have been revealed.<ref name="autogenerated2">{{cite web|url=https://www.ign.com/wikis/kingdom-hearts-3d-dream-drop-distance/Prankster%27s_Paradise_%28Riku%29 |title=Prankster's Paradise (Riku) - Kingdom Hearts 3D Wiki Guide |publisher=IGN |date=July 31, 2012 |access-date=February 25, 2014}}</ref> As compensation, this world appears in ''[[Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance]]'', under the name "Prankster's Paradise", with Dream world versions of Pinocchio, Jiminy Cricket, Geppetto, Cleo, Monstro and the Blue Fairy appearing.<ref name="autogenerated2" />
 
=== Cancelled sequel ===
In the mid-2000s, [[Disneytoon Studios]] began development on a sequel to ''Pinocchio''. Robert Reece co-wrote the film's screenplay, which saw Pinocchio on a "strange journey" for the sake of something dear to him. "It's a story that leads Pinocchio to question why life appears unfair sometimes," said Reece.<ref>{{cite news|last=Armstrong|first=Josh|url=http://animatedviews.com/2013/from-snow-queen-to-pinocchio-ii-robert-reeces-animated-adventures-in-screenwriting/|title=From ''Snow Queen'' to ''Pinocchio II'': Robert Reece's animated adventures in screenwriting|publisher=Animated Views|date=April 22, 2013|accessdate=April 24, 2013}}</ref> [[John Lasseter]] cancelled ''Pinocchio II'' soon after being named Chief Creative Officer of [[Walt Disney Animation Studios]] in 2006.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/disneytoon-studios-to-be-restructured-and-will-operate-as-a-separate-unit-within-walt-disney-animation-studios-58278982.html|title=DisneyToon Studios to be Restructured and Will Operate as a Separate Unit Within Walt Disney Animation Studios|publisher=Walt Disney Studios|date=June 22, 2007|accessdate=February 25, 2014|dead-url=|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170801043607/http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/disneytoon-studios-to-be-restructured-and-will-operate-as-a-separate-unit-within-walt-disney-animation-studios-58278982.html|archive-date=August 1, 2017}}</ref>
 
=== Live-action adaptation ===
In April 2015, it was announced that The Walt Disney Company is developing a feature length [[Disney Live Action Remakes|live-action adaptation]] of ''Pinocchio'', with [[Peter Hedges]] writing the script.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://deadline.com/2015/04/pinocchio-inspired-live-action-film-being-developed-at-disney-1201406564/|title='Pinocchio'-Inspired Live-Action Pic in the Works at Disney|work=Deadline Hollywood|last=Fleming Jr.|first=Mike|date=April 8, 2015}}</ref> In May 2017, [[Sam Mendes]] entered talks to direct the film, with [[Chris Weitz]] serving as screenwriter and producer.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://deadline.com/2017/05/sam-mendes-disney-live-action-pinocchio-1202100024/|title=Sam Mendes in Early Talks To Direct Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio'|work=Deadline Hollywood|last=Busch|first=Anita|date=May 22, 2017}}</ref> In November, Mendes stepped down as director.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/sam-mendes-exits-disneys-live-action-pinocchio-1057750|title=Sam Mendes Exits Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio'|work=The Hollywood Reporter|last=Galuppo|first=Mia|date=November 13, 2017}}</ref>
 
By February 2018, [[Paul King (director)|Paul King]] was announced as director, with Andrew Milano co-producing with Weitz and [[Jack Thorne]] rewriting the script.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/paddington-director-paul-king-direct-live-action-pinocchio-disney-1086772|title=Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Enlists 'Paddington' Director|work=The Hollywood Reporter|last=Kit|first=Borys|date=February 20, 2018}}</ref> Principal photography was announced to take place in England and Italy, beginning in 2019.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://lrmonline.com/news/disneys-live-action-pinocchio-writer-chris-weitz-says-theyre-still-developing-the-script-exclusive/|title=Disney's Live-Action Pinocchio Writer Chris Weitz Says They're Still Developing The Script (Exclusive)|website=LRM Online|last=Medina|first=Joseph Jammer|date=August 21, 2018|accessdate=August 21, 2018}}</ref> By November 2018, [[Tom Hanks]] entered talks to portray Geppetto.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://ew.com/movies/2018/11/29/tom-hanks-geppetto-pinocchio/|title=Tom Hanks in early talks to play Geppetto in Disney's live-action Pinocchio|work=Entertainment Weekly|last=Coggan|first=Devan|date=November 29, 2018|accessdate=December 1, 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://collider.com/tom-hanks-pinocchio-geppetto/|title=Exclusive: Tom Hanks Eyed to Play Geppetto in Disney's 'Pinocchio' Movie|website=[[Collider (website)|Collider]]|date=November 29, 2018}}</ref> In January 2019, King stepped down as director, due to familial personal reasons.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://comicbook.com/movies/2019/01/13/disney-live-action-pinocchio-loses-paddington-director-paul-king/|title=Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Reportedly Loses 'Paddington' Director|website=Comicbook|date=January 13, 2019|accessdate=January 15, 2019}}</ref>
 
By October 2019, [[Robert Zemeckis]] entered talks to serve as the director on the project, with a script co-written by King, Weitz, and [[Simon Farnaby]]. Weitz and Milano are still confirmed as producers.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://variety.com/2019/film/news/robert-zemeckis-pinocchio-disney-1203246886/|title=Robert Zemeckis in Talks to Direct Live-Action 'Pinocchio' for Disney (EXCLUSIVE)|work=[[Variety (magazine)|Variety]]|date=October 18, 2019}}</ref> The same month, it was reported that due to the less-than-expected box office numbers from ''[[Dumbo (2019 film)|Dumbo]]'' and ''[[Maleficent: Mistress of Evil]]'', Disney was considering releasing the film exclusively through its streaming service, [[Disney+]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://thedisinsider.com/2019/10/29/disneys-live-action-pinocchio-remake-could-be-making-the-move-to-disney/|title=Disney’s Live-Action ‘Pinocchio’ Remake Could Be Making The Move To Disney+|website=The DisInsider|date=October 29, 2019}}</ref> By January 2020, it was announced that Zemeckis had officially joined the project as director, with a script he co-wrote with Weitz, that Jack Rapke and Jackie Levine will serve as executive producers, and that the film would instead get a theatrical release.<ref>{{cite news|last=D'Alessandro|first=Anthony|title=Robert Zemeckis Closes Deal To Direct & Co-Write Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio'|url=https://deadline.com/2020/01/pinocchio-robert-zemeckis-to-direct-1202840440/|work=[[Deadline Hollywood]]|date=January 24, 2020}}</ref> Filming is expected to begin in late 2020.<ref name="ZemeckisWriter">{{cite web|url=https://thedisinsider.com/2020/01/24/robert-zemeckis-disneys-pinoccio/|title=Robert Zemeckis Closes Deal To Direct Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Remake|website=The DisInsider|date=January 24, 2020}}</ref> In August 2020, Hanks, a recurring collaborator of Zemeckis', re-entered talks to play Geppetto.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://deadline.com/2020/08/tom-hanks-geppetto-pinocchio-movie-robert-zemeckis-disney-1202998669/|title=Disney Eyeing Tom Hanks To Play Geppetto In Robert Zemeckis' 'Pinocchio'|work=Deadline Hollywood|last=Kroll|first=Justin|date=August 5, 2020|accessdate=August 5, 2020}}</ref>
 
== In other media ==
The ''[[Silly Symphony (comic strip)|Silly Symphony]]'' Sunday comic strip published an adaptation of ''Pinocchio'' from December 24, 1939 to April 7, 1940. The sequences were scripted by [[Merrill De Maris]] and drawn by Hank Porter.<ref name=IDW-v3>{{cite book |last1=Karp |first1=Hubie |last2=Grant |first2=Bob |last3=De Maris |first3=Merrill |last4=Taliaferro |first4=Al |last5=Porter |first5=Hank |title=Silly Symphonies: The Complete Disney Classics, vol 3 |date=2018 |publisher=IDW Publishing |location=San Diego |isbn=978-1631409882}}</ref>
 
== See also ==
*[[1940 in film]]
*[[List of American films of 1940]]
*[[List of Walt Disney Pictures films]]
*[[List of Disney theatrical animated features]]
*[[List of animated feature films of the 1940s]]
*[[List of highest-grossing animated films]]
*[[List of Disney animated films based on fairy tales]]
*[[List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes]], a film review aggregator website
*[[List of films considered the best]]
 
== References ==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== Bibliography ==
{{Refbegin|40em}}
*{{cite book|last=Barrier|first=Michael|authorlink=Michael Barrier|title=Hollywood Cartoons : American Animation in Its Golden Age: American Animation in Its Golden Age|url=https://archive.org/details/hollywoodcartoon00barr|url-access=registration|year=1999|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-802079-0}}
*{{cite book|last=Barrier|first=Michael|title=The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney|year=2008|publisher=[[University of California Press]]|isbn=978-0520256194}}
*{{cite book|last=Beck|first=Jerry|authorlink=Jerry Beck|title=The Animated Movie Guide|url=https://archive.org/details/animatedmoviegui0000beck|url-access=registration|year=2005|publisher=Chicago Review Press|isbn=978-1-56976-222-6}}
*{{cite book|last=Booker|first=M. Keith|title=Disney, Pixar, and the Hidden Messages of Children's Films|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jD9_0jxVmqUC&pg=PA11|year=2010|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=978-0-313-37672-6}}
*{{cite book|last=Canemaker|first=John|title=Walt Disney's Nine Old Men and the Art of Animation|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Walt_Disney_s_Nine_Old_Men_and_the_Art_o/YxYRAQAAMAAJ|year=2001|publisher=Disney Editions|isbn=978-0786864966}}
*{{cite book|last=Gabler|first=Neal|title=Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=41e-Ru0wRkEC|year=2006|publisher=Vintage Books|isbn=978-0-679-75747-4}}
*{{cite book|last=Honeyman|first=Susan|title=Consuming Agency in Fairy Tales, Childlore, and Folkliterature|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xlQZQOACowwC&pg=PA29|year=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-136-60395-2}}
*{{cite book|last1=Jewell|first1=Richard B.|last2=Harbin|first2=Vernon|title=The RKO Story|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=o_wuAAAAMAAJ|year=1982|publisher=Arlington House}}
*{{cite book|last1=Mitchell|first1=Claudia|last2=Reid-Walsh|first2=Jacqueline|title=Girl Culture: Studying girl culture : a readers' guide|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LLbZ8Q2PFb8C&pg=PA48|year=2008|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=978-0-313-33909-7}}
*{{cite book|last=Moritz|first=William|title=Optical Poetry: The Life and Work of Oskar Fischinger|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xuFPa4oL26oC&pg=PA84|year=2004|publisher=Indiana University Press|isbn=0-253-34348-8}}
*{{cite book|last=Pinsky|first=Mark I.|title=The Gospel According to Disney: Faith, Trust, and Pixie Dust|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YGtbYTyulb4C&pg=PA28|year=2004|chapter=4|publisher=Westminster John Knox Press|isbn=978-0-664-23467-6}}
*{{cite book|last=Roberts|first=David|title=British Hit Singles and Albums|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5fZvPwAACAAJ|year=2006|publisher=Guinness World Records Limited|isbn=978-1-904994-10-7}}
*{{cite book|last=Thomas|first=Bob|title=Walt Disney: An American Original|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mJGpPwAACAAJ|orig-year=1976|year=1994|publisher=San Val, Incorporated|isbn=978-0-7857-5515-9}}
*{{cite book|last=Wasko|first=Janet|title=Understanding Disney: The Manufacture of Fantasy|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=GQfk_5oMrCcC|year=2013|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-0-7456-6904-5}}
{{Refend}}
 
== External links ==
{{commons category}}
{{Wikiquote}}
*{{Official website|https://movies.disney.com/pinocchio}}
*{{AFI film|5131}}
*{{Allmovie title|38183|Pinocchio}}
*{{Bcdb title|14|Pinocchio}}
*{{Mojo title|pinocchio}}
*{{IMDb title|0032910|Pinocchio}}
*{{Rotten Tomatoes|pinocchio_1940|Pinocchio}}
*{{tcmdb title|86717|Pinocchio}}
*{{cite book|last=Eagan|first=Daniel|chapter=Pinocchio|title=America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry|publisher=[[A & C Black]]|year=2010|isbn=0826429777|pp=311–313|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/America_s_Film_Legacy/deq3xI8OmCkC?hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIr9CUqP_qAhXyl3IEHX1wCbIQiKUDMBZ6BAgTEAQ}}
*{{cite journal|last=Kaufman|first=J.B.|author-link=J.B. Kaufman|url=https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-film-preservation-board/documents/pinocchio.pdf|title=''Pinocchio''|work=[[National Film Registry]]|year=2014}}
 
{{Pinocchio}}
{{Disney theatrical animated features}}
{{Walt Disney Animation Studios}}
{{Hamilton Luske}}
{{Wilfred Jackson}}
{{Portal bar|Disney|Cartoon|Animation}}
 
{{Authority control}}
 
[[Category:Pinocchio (1940 film)| ]]
[[Category:1940 animated films]]
[[Category:1940 films]]
[[Category:1940s children's animated films]]
[[Category:1940s American animated films]]
[[Category:1940s coming-of-age films]]
[[Category:1940s musical fantasy films]]
[[Category:American children's animated adventure films]]
[[Category:American children's animated fantasy films]]
[[Category:American films]]
[[Category:American children's animated musical films]]
[[Category:American coming-of-age films]]
[[Category:American fantasy adventure films]]
[[Category:American musical fantasy films]]
[[Category:Animated coming-of-age films]]
[[Category:Animated films about cats]]
[[Category:Animated films about death]]
[[Category:Animated films about foxes]]
[[Category:Animated films about friendship]]
[[Category:Animated films based on children's books]]
[[Category:Animated films based on novels]]
[[Category:English-language films]]
[[Category:Films about fairies and sprites]]
[[Category:Films about wish fulfillment]]
[[Category:Films adapted into comics]]
[[Category:Films directed by Norman Ferguson]]
[[Category:Films directed by T. Hee]]
[[Category:Films directed by Wilfred Jackson]]
[[Category:Films directed by Jack Kinney]]
[[Category:Films directed by Hamilton Luske]]
[[Category:Films directed by Bill Roberts]]
[[Category:Films directed by Ben Sharpsteen]]
[[Category:Films produced by Walt Disney]]
[[Category:Films scored by Leigh Harline]]
[[Category:Films scored by Paul Smith (film and television composer)]]
[[Category:Films set in amusement parks]]
[[Category:Films set in Italy]]
[[Category:Films set in the 19th century]]
[[Category:Films that won the Best Original Score Academy Award]]
[[Category:Films that won the Best Original Song Academy Award]]
[[Category:Pinocchio films]]
[[Category:United States National Film Registry films]]
[[Category:Walt Disney Animation Studios films]]
[[Category:Walt Disney Pictures films]]
[[Category:Pinocchio (Disney version)| ]]