Wikipedia:Citing sources

Padron:Subcat guideline Padron:Nutshell

Patakaran ng Wikipedia
Patakarn pang-Artikulo
Walang Pinapanigang Pananaw
Verifiable information only
Walang Sariling Paggalugad
Pagdagdag ng Sanggunian
Ang Wikipedia ay hindi...
Talambuhay ng mga buhay na tao
Pakikisama sa iba
Magkaroon ng positibong pananaw
Sibilidad at mabuting asal
Walang Personal na Atake
Resolba sa Pagaalitan

A citation is a line of text that uniquely identifies a source. For example:

  • Ritter, R. (2002). The Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860564-1.

It allows a reader to find the source and verify that it supports material in Wikipedia.

When to use. As described in the When to cite sources section of this guideline, sources should be cited when adding material that is challenged or likely to be challenged, when quoting someone, when adding material to the biography of a living person, when checking content added by others, and when uploading an image.

How to format. While you should attempt to format a citation as described in the How to format citations section of this guideline, it is even more important that material in Wikipedia is verifiable. Add your source even if you are unsure of how to properly format the citation—provide enough information to identify the source, and others will improve the formatting.

How to present. Citations are usually presented within articles using one of the methods described in the How to present citations section of this guideline. Each article should use the same method throughout—if an article already has some citations, an editor should adopt the method already in use or seek consensus before changing it.

Quick summaryBaguhin

Footnote summaryBaguhin

The most common method for citing sources in Wikipedia uses footnotes. The basic steps are:

  • Immediately after the text that requires a source, add <ref>details of the citation</ref>. This will appear as a numbered superscript link.
  • If you are working on a new page, or adding the first footnote to a page, add the following wiki markup at the bottom of the page, where the body of the footnote will appear:
<references />
OR ==Notes==
  • Your details of the citation text will appear in the appropriate section towards the bottom of the article, listed along with other footnotes; clicking on the numbered superscript link in the text will jump to it.

General reference summaryBaguhin

If a source supports a significant amount of the material in an article, another method is general referencing. The basic steps are:

  • If you are working on a new page, or adding the first citation to a page, add the following wiki markup at the bottom of the page, where the list of citations will appear:
* details of the citation

When to cite sourcesBaguhin

Wikipedia is by its very nature a work by people with widely different knowledge and skills. The reader needs to be assured that the material within it is reliable. The purpose of citing sources is:

Since per WP:V each fact presented by an article must be concretely verifiable, at the editor's discretion it is possible and appropriate to include as many proper and correct citations as desired to affirm the statements made. However citation is only required as specified in the following list of circumstances. And whether a citation is added in a required context or at an editor's discretion it must be accurate and should comply with the rules set forth in this guideline.

When adding material that is challenged or likely to be challengedBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

Wikipedia:Verifiability says: "All quotations and any material challenged or likely to be challenged should be attributed to a reliable, published source using an inline citation."

The need for citations is especially important when writing about opinions held on a particular issue. Avoid weasel words where possible, such as, "Some people say ..." Instead, make your writing verifiable: find a specific person or group who holds that opinion and give a citation to a reputable publication in which they express that opinion. Remember that Wikipedia is not a place for expressing your own opinions or for original research. Opinions, data and statistics, and statements based on someone's scientific work should be cited and attributed to their authors in the text.

When quoting someoneBaguhin

For information on the formatting and treatment of quotations, see Manual of Style:Quotations

You should always add a citation when quoting published material, including the page number if there is one. The citation should be placed either directly after the quotation

Example: "This is a quotation."1

or after a sentence or phrase that introduces the quotation.

Example: Bertrand Russell explained the fallacy as follows:2

When adding material to the biography of a living personBaguhin

Biographies of living persons should be sourced with particular care, for legal and ethical reasons. All contentious material about living persons must cite a reliable source. If you find unsourced or poorly sourced contentious material about a living person—whether in an article or on a talk page—remove it immediately! Do not leave it in the article while you request a source. Do not move it to the talk page. This applies whether the material is in a biography or any other article.

When checking content added by othersBaguhin

You can also add sources for material you did not write. Adding citations is an excellent way to contribute to Wikipedia. See Wikipedia:WikiProject Fact and Reference Check for organized efforts to add citations.

When uploading an imageBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

Images must include source details and a copyright tag on the image description page. It is important that you list the author of the image if known (especially if different from the source), which is important both for copyright and for informational purposes. Some copyright licenses require that the original author receive credit for their work.

  • If you download an image from the web, you should give the URL:
Source: Downloaded from
  • If you got the image from an offline source, you should specify:
Source: Scanned from public record #5253 on file with Anytown, Somestate public surveyor

Any image with a non-free copyright license must be accompanied by a non-free use rationale (also called a fair use rationale) for each article in which the image is used.

Qualifying sourcesBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

Sources for uncontentious statements need not be described in the text beyond adding the citation. In the following example, no description of the source in the text is required:

The word caffeine comes from the French word for coffee: café.[1]

For statements about which reliable sources are in conflict or that are matters of differing opinion, the text should include sufficient context to qualify the statement or attribute its source. For example (from Super-recursive algorithm):

Martin Davis has described some of Burgin's claims as "misleading".[2]

In a case like this, it is important for the text to attribute this opinion to its source, so it does not appear that Wikipedia is making this criticism of Burgin's claims. See Wikipedia:Neutral Point of View.

How to format citationsBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

This section describes how to put together the text of a citation. Before you add it to a Wikipedia article, you may need to enclose it in tags or add an additional shortened version to the article.

Citation stylesBaguhin

All citation techniques require detailed full citations to be provided for each source used. Full citations must contain enough information for other editors to identify the specific published work you used. There are a number of styles used in different fields. They all include the same information but vary in punctuation and the order of the author's name, publication date, title, and page numbers. Any of these styles is acceptable on Wikipedia so long as articles are internally consistent. You should follow the style already established in an article, if it has one. Where there is disagreement, the style used by the first editor to use one should be respected. There are some specific examples of citations here.

Full citations for books typically include the following information:

  • the name of the author or authors
  • the title of the book
  • the date of publication, and page numbers.
  • The name of the publisher, city of publication, and ISBN are optional, although publisher is generally required for featured articles.

Full citations for journal articles typically include:

  • the name of the author or authors
  • year and sometimes month of publication
  • the title of the article
  • the name of the journal
  • volume number, issue number (if the journal uses them), and page numbers (article numbers in some electronic journals)

Citations for newspaper articles typically include:

  • the byline (author's name),
  • the title of the article in quotes,
  • the name of the newspaper in italics,
  • date of publication,
  • page number(s),
  • and a comment with the date you retrieved it if it is online (invisible to the reader).

Citations for World Wide Web articles typically include:

  • the name of the author or authors,
  • the title of the article in quotes,
  • the name of the website (linked to a Wikipedia article about the site if it exists, or to Website's "about page"),
  • date of publication,
  • page number(s) (if applicable),
  • the date you retrieved it (invisible to the reader if the article has a date of publication),
  • an optional short quote (used rarely, if the source is likely to be challenged)


Citations can be accompanied by metadata, although it is not mandatory to do so. Most citation templates on Wikipedia use the COinS microformat. Metadata such as this allow browser plugins and other automated software to make citation data accessible to the user, for instance by providing links to their library's online copies of the cited works.

Some articles opt to manually format references, without using citation templates. In these cases, it is possible for metadata to be added manually in a span, according to the COinS specification; or the templates Template:Citation metadata or Template:COinS can be used.

Including page numbersBaguhin

If you are quoting from, paraphrasing, or referring to a specific passage of a book or article, you should if possible also cite the page number(s) of that passage. In the case of books, the edition of the book should also be included because pagination can change between editions. Page numbers are especially important in case of lengthy unindexed books. Page numbers within a book or article are not required when a citation is for a general description of a book or article, or when a book or article, as a whole, is being used to exemplify a particular point of view.

Cite the place where you found the materialBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

It is improper to obtain a citation from an intermediate source without making clear that you saw only that intermediate source. For example, you might find some information on a Web page that is attributed to a certain book. Unless you look at the book yourself to check that the information is there, your source is really the Web page, which is what you must cite. The credibility of your article rests on the credibility of the Web page, as well as the book, and your article must make that clear.

Links and ID numbersBaguhin

A citation ideally includes a link or ID number to help editors locate the source.

If you have a URL (webpage) link, you can add it to the title part of the citation, so that when you add the citation to Wikipedia the URL becomes hidden and the title becomes clickable. To do this, enclose the URL and the title in square brackets—the URL first, then a space, then the title. For example:

Brown, R.: [http://webpage.html "Size of the Moon"], ''Scientific American'', 51(78):46.

For web-only sources you should also include a "Retrieved on" date in case the webpage changes in future: Retrieved on 2008-07-15.

You can also add an ID number to the end of a citation. The ID number might be an ISBN for a book, a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) for an article, or any of several ID numbers that are specific to particular article databases, such as a PMID number for articles on PubMed. It may be possible to format these so that they are automatically activated and become clickable when added to Wikipedia, for example by typing ISBN (or PMID) following by a space followed by the ID number.

If your source is not findable online, it should be findable in reputable libraries, archives, or collections. If a citation without an external link is challenged as unfindable, any of the following is sufficient to show the material to be reasonably findable (though not necessarily reliable): providing an ISBN or OCLC number; linking to an established Wikipedia article about the source (the work, its author, or its publisher); or directly quoting the material on the talk page, briefly and in context.

Convenience linksBaguhin

A "convenience link" is a link to a copy of your source on a webpage provided by someone other than the original publisher or author. For example, a copy of a newspaper article no longer available on the newspaper's website may be hosted elsewhere. When offering convenience links, it is important to be reasonably certain that the convenience copy is a true copy of the original, without any changes or inappropriate commentary, and that it does not infringe the original publisher's copyright. Accuracy can be assumed when the hosting website appears reliable, but editors should always exercise caution, and ideally find and verify multiple copies of the material for contentious items.

Where several sites host a copy of the material, the site selected as the convenience link should be the one whose general content appears most in line with Wikipedia:Neutral point of view and Wikipedia:Verifiability.

Sources in different languagesBaguhin

Because this is the English Wikipedia, English-language sources should be given whenever possible, and should always be used in preference to other language sources of equal caliber. However, do use sources in other languages where appropriate. If quoting from a different language source, an English translation should be given with the original-language quote beside it.

Citation templates and toolsBaguhin

For a comparison of citations using templates with citations written freehand, see Wikipedia:Citing sources/Example edits for different methods.

Citation templates are used to format citations in a consistent way. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Templates may be used or removed at the discretion of individual editors, subject to agreement with other editors on the article. Because templates can be contentious, editors should not change an article with a distinctive citation format to another without gaining consensus.

There are several webpages/tools that can help quickly produce a citation in a standard template format. You may only need one piece of information and they can fill in the rest of the details. The resulting citation will be enclosed in "cite" tags, and it will be formatted in a particular way depending on which kind of template is being used. You can then copy all the text from there. It may still require additional tags before you can add it to a Wikipedia article.

There is a list of citation creation tools at the end of this article.

See also: Template:Uw-unsourced1 - please cite sources

How to present citationsBaguhin

Citations are usually presented within articles in one of five ways:

  1. General reference: By placing the citation in a list at the end of an article.
  2. Footnote: By placing it in a footnote, with a link following the assertion (whether a clause, sentence, paragraph, etc.) that it supports.[3]
  3. Shortened footnote: By placing the citation in the list and naming only the author, year, and page number in a footnote.[4]
  4. Parenthetical reference: By placing the citation in the list and naming the author, year, and page number in parentheses (Ritter 2002, p. 45).
  5. In addition, embedded links may be used if the source is a web page.

Editors are free to use any method; no method is preferred, though the use of embedded links for inline citations is not particularly recommended as a method of best practice and is not found in featured articles. Some articles use a combination of general references, citations in footnotes and shortened notes. (See, for example, Starship Troopers, Rosa Parks or Absinthe.) Some articles use separate sections for footnotes containing citations and other footnotes. (See Augustus.)

Many editors prefer to reserve the section heading Bibliography for complete lists of published works in authors' biographies. The section heading Citations is often similarly reserved for military citations and government proclamations. Sources is often reserved for sections about source code, geological sources, anatomical and biological sources, and the locations where materials are procured.

Whichever style you choose, sections containing citations should be placed after the "See also" section and before the "Further reading" section.[5] Once a style is selected for an article it is inappropriate to change an article to another unless there is a reason that goes beyond mere choice of style.[6]

General referenceBaguhin

If a source supports a significant amount of the material in an article, it may sometimes be acceptable to simply add the citation at the end. It serves as a general reference, not linked to any particular part of the article. This is more likely to be appropriate for relatively undeveloped articles or those covering a very simple or narrow topic.

The Sun is pretty big, but the Moon is not so big. The Sun is also quite hot.
== References ==
*Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78).
*Miller, E (2005). ''The Sun'', Academic Press.

Below is how this would look once the edit was saved (note book/magazine titles italicized):

The Sun is pretty big, but the Moon is not so big. The Sun is also quite hot.


  • Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78).
  • Miller, E (2005). The Sun, Academic Press.

Inline citationsBaguhin

In most cases, an inline citation is required in addition to the full citation. This shows which specific part of the article a citation is being applied to. Inline citations are mandated by Wikipedia's featured article criteria and (to a lesser extent) the good article criteria. They are particularly appropriate for supporting statements of fact and are needed for statements that are challenged or likely to be challenged, including contentious material about living persons, and for all quotations.

The following are methods of inline citation used in Wikipedia:

Footnote systemBaguhin

See also: Help:Footnotes

Many Wikipedia articles, particularly the more developed articles and those which meet good or featured article criteria, place their citations in footnotes. The inline citations in this method appear as small clickable numbers within the text, which link to a numbered list of full citations in footnotes at the end of the article.

For a citation to appear in a footnote, it needs to be enclosed in "ref" tags. You can add these by typing <ref> at the front of the citation and </ref> at the end. Alternatively you may notice below the edit box there is a list of "markup" which includes <ref></ref> - if you highlight your whole citation and then click this markup, it will automatically enclose your citation in ref tags. Optionally, one may add the name attribute by using <ref name="name">details of the citation</ref>. Thereafter, the same footnote may be used multiple times by adding <ref name="name"/>.

The full citation will appear in an appendix to the article. If this appendix does not already exist, create the appendix and place either <references/> or {{Reflist}} in it.[7] This will automatically generate the list of footnotes.

The example below shows what this would look like in the edit box:

The Sun is pretty big,<ref>Miller, E: ''The Sun'', page 23. Academic Press, 2005.</ref>
but the Moon is not so big.<ref>Brown, R: "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78):46</ref>
The Sun is also quite hot.<ref>Miller, E: ''The Sun'', page 34. Academic Press, 2005.</ref>

Below is how this would look in the article, once you had saved your edit:

The Sun is pretty big,[1] but the Moon is not so big.[2] The Sun is also quite hot.[3]


  1. ^ Miller, E: The Sun, page 23. Academic Press, 2005.
  2. ^ Brown, R: "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78):46.
  3. ^ Miller, E: The Sun, page 34. Academic Press, 2005.

Shortened footnotesBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

Many articles use a shortened version of the citation in the footnote, giving just the author, year (or title) and the page numbers. As before, the list of footnotes is automatically generated in a "Notes" or "Footnotes" section. A full citation is then added in a "References" section. The short citation and the full citation may be linked so that the reader may click on the short note to highlight the full citation (see wikilinks to full references).

Shortened footnotes are used for several reasons: they allow the editor to cite many different pages of the same source without having to copy the entire citation; they avoid the inevitable clutter when long citations are inserted into the source text; they bring together all the full citations into a coherent block of code (rather than being strewn throughout the text) which allows the list to be alphabetized and makes it easier to edit all the full citations at once (e.g. adding ISBN, DOI or other detail); and a single footnote can contain multiple citations, thus avoiding long rows of footnote markers.

Below is an edit mode view of adding "shortened notes" citations to an article:

The Sun is pretty big,<ref>Miller 2005, p. 23.</ref>
but the Moon is not so big.<ref>Brown 2006, p. 46.</ref>
The Sun is also quite hot.<ref>Miller 2005, p. 34.</ref>
== Footnotes ==
== References ==
*Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78).
*Miller, E (2005). ''The Sun'', Academic Press.

Below is how this would look once the edit was saved:

The Sun is pretty big,[1] but the Moon is not so big.[2] The Sun is also quite hot.[3]


  1. ^ Miller 2005, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown 2006, p. 46.
  3. ^ Miller 2005, p. 34.


  • Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78).
  • Miller, E (2005). The Sun, Academic Press.

Shortened notes using titles rather than publication dates could look like this in the article:


  1. ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown, "Size of the Moon", p. 46.
  3. ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 34.

For more detailed examples using shortened notes, including the use of links from the short notes to the full references, see Wikipedia:Citing sources/Example edits for different methods.

Parenthetical referencingBaguhin

Two forms of parenthetical referencing—author-date referencing (APA style, Harvard style, or Chicago style) and author-title or author-page referencing (MLA style or Chicago style)—have also been used in Wikipedia.

In parenthetical citations, a short version of the citation is added in parentheses just after the point it is supporting, comprising only the surname of the author(s) and the year of publication, and possibly page numbers (APA style); or the surname of the author(s) and possibly short titles and/or page numbers (MLA style).

Using author-date parenthetical references, the inline citation usually looks like: (Author 2006:28) or (Author 2006, p. 28). The full citation is then added at the end of the article to a "References" or "Works cited" section. This list of full citations is usually ordered alphabetically by author name. As with shortened notes, the inline citation and the full citation may be linked so that the reader may click on the inline citation to highlight the full citation (see linking inline and full citations).

Author-date references are the most commonly used citation style in the physical and social sciences (Ritter 2002) (whereas author-title or author-page citations are the most commonly used style in the arts and the humanities). Author-date references are used in some of Wikipedia's articles on science and medicine.

For a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of author-date parenthetical citations, with some brief comparison to the author-title or author-page parenthetical citations, please see Pros & Cons.

Below is an edit mode view of adding author-date citations to an article:

The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005),
but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 46).
The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 34).
== References ==
*Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78).
*Miller, E (2005). ''The Sun'', Academic Press.

Below is how this would look once the edit was saved:

The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005), but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 46). The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 34).


  • Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78).
  • Miller, E (2005). The Sun, Academic Press.

Embedded linksBaguhin

If a webpage is used as a source, it can be linked to directly within the article by enclosing the URL in square brackets just after the point it is supporting. When the edit is saved, only a number is visible within the text. For example, a citation of a newspaper article can be embedded by adding: [,14173,1601858,00.html], which looks like this in the article: [1]

A full citation is also required in a References section at the end of the article. In addition, providing an access date for the link in a comment helps editors recover a link that has become unavailable. for example:

*Plunkett, John. [,14173,1601858,00.html "Sorrell accuses Murdoch of panic buying"], ''The Guardian'', October 27, 2005. <!--accessed June 5, 2008-->

which appears as:

Because of the difficulties in associating them with their appropriate full citations, the use of embedded links for inline citations is not particularly recommended as a method of best practice and is not found in featured articles. It is easily converted to a shortened footnote or parenthetical reference.

Avoid scrolling listsBaguhin

Scrolling lists, for example lists of citations appearing within a scroll box, should never be used because of issues with readability, accessibility, printing, and site mirroring. Additionally, it cannot be guaranteed that such lists will display properly in all web browsers.

See this July 2007 policy discussion for more detail.

Collapsible tablesBaguhin

Footnotes and/or citations with collapsible tables, see example below, are an uncommon format. Nevertheless, the tables can be useful for implementing a dual reference system, whereby one citation table may be sorted in alphabetical order by title and the other table may be sorted by origin.[8] Unlike scrolling lists, collapsible tables function properly with footnotes/citations and may be easily printable.[9] Though it is possible, the collapsible table is uncommonly used in conjunction with regular footnotes for annotation purposes.[10]

The Sun is pretty big, but the Moon is not so big. The Sun is also quite hot.
== References ==

Dealing with citation problemsBaguhin

Unsourced materialBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

If an article has no references, and you are unable to find them yourself, you can tag the article with the template {{Unreferenced}}, so long as the article is not nonsensical or a biography of a living person, in which case request admin assistance. If a particular claim in an article lacks citation and is doubtful, consider placing {{fact}} after the sentence or removing it. This will add a citation needed label.

Consider the following in deciding which action to take:

  • If a claim is doubtful but not harmful to the whole article or to Wikipedia, use the {{fact}} tag, but remember to go back and remove the claim if no source is produced within a reasonable time.
  • If a claim is doubtful and harmful, you should remove it from the article; you may want to move it to the talk page and ask for a source, unless you regard it as very harmful or absurd, in which case it should not be posted to a talk page either. Use your common sense. All unsourced and poorly sourced contentious material about living persons should be removed from articles and talk pages immediately. It should not be tagged. See Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons and Wikipedia:Libel.

Dead linksBaguhin

Tuwirang daan:

Preventing dead linksBaguhin

To help prevent dead links, persistent identifiers are available for some sources. Some journal articles have a digital object identifier (DOI); some online newspapers and blogs, and also Wikipedia, have permalinks that are stable. When permanent links aren't available, consider archiving the referenced document when writing the article; on-demand web archiving services such as WebCite ( are fairly easy to use (see pre-emptive archiving).

Repairing dead linksBaguhin

Dead links should be repaired or replaced if possible. In most cases one of the following approaches will give an acceptable alternative.

  • First, check the link to confirm that it is dead. The site may have been temporarily down or have changed its linking structure. If the link has returned to service but has been labeled as a dead link, simply remove the labeling. See {{dead link}}.
  • If the document is no longer available at the original website, there may be a copy of the referenced document at a web archiving service. If so, update the citation to include a link to the archived copy of the referenced document.
  • If a good copy of the original document cannot be located, it may be possible to find a substitute. Enter key words or phrases or other content from the cited material into the referenced website's search engine, into a similar website's search engine, or into a general search engine such as Google. (A search engine may hold a cached version of the dead link for a short time, which can help find a substitute.) Or, browse the referenced document's website or similar websites. If you find a new document that can serve as a substitute, update the dead link to refer to the new document.
  • Deactivate the dead link, and keep the citation information if still appropriate to the article. (This may happen, for example, when an online copy of material that originally appeared in print is no longer online.) In the remaining citation, note that the dead link was found to be inactive on today's date. Even with an inactive link, the citation still records a source that was used, and provides a context for understanding archiving delays or for taking other actions. In order to deactivate the dead link, do one of the following.
    • Turn the dead link into plain text. Remove only enough of the dead link's wikitext or markup language or URI scheme (square brackets, "http://", and so on) so that clicking on the link does not take you to its destination. This will make the link visible to both readers and editors of the article.
    • Turn the dead link into an HTML comment. Place HTML comment markup language around the link. This will make the link disappear when reading the article, but will preserve the link for editors of the article.

If a dead link cannot be repaired or replaced, consider reworking the article section so that it no longer relies on the dead link.

Whether a dead link can or cannot be repaired or replaced, remember that Wikipedia policy (including policy on sources and biographies of living persons) still applies. Consider doing further edits of the citation and cited material, if appropriate, to improve the article.

Use of termsBaguhin

A "citation" is a line of text that identifies a source. A "source" (for the purposes of this guideline) is a document (or webpage) that is used to support material in an article.[11] The word "reference" may refer to the citation, to the source or to both together.[12]

A common system of citation on Wikipedia is a footnote system, where citations appear in footnotes. A footnote containing a citation is a "reference", a "citation" and a "footnote" at the same time.

The terms Footnote and Note are also used interchangeably. There is no separate usage of the term "Endnote" because each Wikipedia article, like other HTML documents, is considered to be only one page even if it is displayed across several screens.

The terms Further Reading, External links or Bibliography are used as section headings in Wikipedia articles for lists of additional general texts on a topic for those interested, rather than for citations supporting the article.


Citation creation toolsBaguhin

A wide range of tools is available to help put together a full citation. Padron:WP:Citation tools

Citation processing toolsBaguhin

  • User:CitationTool – tool for finding article-level citation errors and fixing them. Not currently functional.
  • Citation bot (formerly DOI bot) – automatically fixes common errors in individual citations, and adds missing fields

Programming toolsBaguhin

  • Wikicite is a free program that helps editors to create citations for their Wikipedia contributions using citation templates. It is written in Visual Basic .NET, making it suitable only for users with the .NET Framework installed on Windows, or, for other platforms, the Mono alternative framework. Wikicite and its source code is freely available, see the developer's page for further details.
    • Wikicite+ is a program based on the original Wikicite source code. It features extra validation, bug fixes, additional cite templates (such as cite episode) as well as tools for stub sorting and more. It is also available for free under the Apache License 2.0 and is open source.
  • pubmed2wiki.xsl a XSL stylesheet transforming the XML output of pubmed to Wikipedia refs.
  • User:Richiez has tools to automatically handle citations for a whole article at a time. Converts occurrences of {{pmid XXXX}} or {{isbn XXXX}} to properly formatted footnote or Harvard style references. Written in ruby and requires a working installation with basic libraries.

Citation export toolsBaguhin

You can insert a link beside each citation in Wikipedia, allowing you to export the citation to a reference manager such as EndNote. Just copy this code:


to the end of Special:MyPage/monobook.js. Then, save the page and press Ctrl-F5 to clear your browser's cache.

See alsoBaguhin

How to cite

Citation problems



  1. "Caffeine" in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., 2000.
  2. Davis, Martin (2006), "The Church–Turing Thesis: Consensus and opposition". Proceedings, Computability in Europe 2006. Lecture notes in computer science, pp. 125–32.
  3. Ritter, R. (2002). The Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-198-60564-1.
  4. Ritter 2002, p. 45
  5. For more information see Wikipedia:Layout#Standard appendices
  6. For more information see WP:Manual of Style#Consistency.
  7. See Wikipedia:Layout#Notes, Footnotes, or References for information regarding where to place the new appendix in the article.
  8. See Wikipedia article Venetian style shoe. November 15, 2008, 22:48 UTC. Available at:
  9. Easily printable using Internet Explorer according to CyclePat2 on 5 December 2008. Example available at
  10. "Example of a footnote with a collapsible annotation citation table". December 5, 2008.
  11. The word "source", as used in Wikipedia, has three related meanings: the piece of work itself, the creator of the work, and the publisher of the work. See Wikipedia:Verifiability#Reliable sources
  12. Standard English employs similar usage: on Princeton's WordNet one of the definitions of "to cite" is "to make reference to." (See the entry halfway down the page here and note that it also explicitly lists "reference" as a synonym for "cite".)


Further readingBaguhin