Subkontinenteng Indiyano

(Idinirekta mula sa Indian subcontinent)

Ang subkontinenteng Indiyano, o, simpleng tinatawag minsan bilang ang subkontinente, ay isang rehiyong pisiyograpikal sa katimugang Asya, matatagpuan sa Platong Indiyano at umuusli tungong timog sa Karagatang Indiyano mula sa Himalaya. Sa heolohiya, may kaugnayan ang subkontinenteng Indiyano sa kumpol ng lupain na bumiyak mula sa Gondwana at sumanib sa kumpol na lupain ng Eurasya noong halos 55 milyong taon na nakalipas.[1] Sa heograpiya, ito ang rehiyong pantangway sa timog-sentral Asya, na nahihiwalay Himalaya sa hilaga, ang Hindu Kush sa kanluran, at ang bulubunduking Arakan sa silangan.[2] Sa heopolitikal, kabilang sa subkontinenteng Indiyano ang lahat o bahagi ng Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indya, Nepal, Pakistan at Sri Lanka, gayun din ang Maldives.

Subkontinenteng Indiyano
Indian Subcontinent (orthographic projection).png
Mga bansa Bangladesh
 Bhutan
 India
 Maldives
   Nepal
 Pakistan
 Sri Lanka

PangalanBaguhin

Ang Ingles ng "subkontinente" ay subcontinent at sang-ayon sa Oxford English Dictionary, ipinapahiwatig ng katawagang subcontinent ang isang "subdibisyon ng isang kontinente na may isang natatanging identidad na pang-heograpiya, pampolitika, o pangkalinangan" at ito rin ay isang "malaking kumpol ng lupain na medyo mas maliit sa isang kontinente".[3][4] Ang paggamit nito upang tukuyin ang subkontinenteng Indiyano ay makikita noong unang bahagi ng ika-20 dantaon, nang karamihan ng mga teritoryo ay bahagi ng Indyang Britaniko,[5][6][7] dahil isa itong madaling katawagan sa rehiyon na binubuo ng parehong Indyang Britaniko at mga malaprinsipeng estado sa ilalim ng Britanikong Supremesya.[8][9]

Naging partikular na karaniwan bilang isang katawagan ang subkontinenteng Indiyano sa Imperyong Britaniko at ang mga sumunod dito,[10] habang mas karaniwan ang katawagang "Timog Asya" (o katumbas nito sa Ingles o ibang wika) sa Europa at Hilagang Amerika.[11][12] Sang-ayon sa mga dalubhasa sa kasaysayan na sina Sugata Bose at Ayesha Jalal, nakilala na ang subkontinenteng Indiya bilang Timog Asya "sa mas kamakailan at walang kinikilingang paraan ng pagsasalita."[13] Ipinaliwanag ng Indolohistang si Ronald B. Inden na ang paggamit ng katawagang "Timog Asya" ay nagiging mas malawak na ginagamit yayamang mas malinaw na ipinagkakaiba ang rehiyon mula sa Silangang Asya.[14] Habang ang "Timog Asya," isang mas tumpak na katawagan na sumasalamin sa kontemporaryong pampolitika paghihiwalay ng rehiyon, ay pinapalitan ang "subkontinenteng Indiyano", isang katawagan na malapit na nauugnay sa kolonyal na pamana ng rehiyon. Bilang isang panakip na katawagan, ginagamit ang "subkontinenteng Indiyano" sa tipolohikal na pag-aaral.[15][16]

Simula noong pagkahati ng Indya, kadalasang nakikita ng mga mamamayan ng Pakistan (na naging malaya mula sa Britanikong Indya noong 1947) at Bangladesh (na naging malaya sa Pakistan noong 1971) ang paggamit ng "subkontinenteng Indiyano" bilang opensibo at kahina-hinala dahil sa dominanteng paglagay ng Indya sa katawagan. Sa naturang ito, lalong hindi gaanong ginagamit ang katawagan sa mga bansang iyon. Samantala, maraming analistang Indiyano ang ninais na gamitin ang katawagan dahil sa sosyo-kultural na pagkakapareho ng rehiyon.[17] Tinatawag din ang rehiyon bilang ang "subkontinenteng Asyano,"[18][19] ang "subkontinenteng Timog Asyano,"[20][21] o ang "subkontinenteng Indo-Pak,"[22] gayon din bilang Indya o Kalakhang Indya sa klasiko o bago ang modernong kaisipan.[23][24][25]

Mga sanggunianBaguhin

  1. Robert Wynn Jones (2011). Applications of Palaeontology: Techniques and Case Studies (sa wikang Ingles). Cambridge University Press. mga pa. 267–271. ISBN 978-1-139-49920-0.
  2. Baker, Kathleen M.; Chapman, Graham P. (11 Marso 2002), The Changing Geography of Asia (sa wikang Ingles), Routledge, mga pa. 10–, ISBN 978-1-134-93384-6, This greater India is well defined in terms of topography; it is the Indian sub-continent, hemmed in by the Himalayas on the north, the Hindu Khush in the west and the Arakanese in the east.
  3. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged, Merriam-Webster, 2002. Hinango noong 6 Disyembre 2016; Banggit: "a large landmass smaller than a continent; especially: a major subdivision of a continent <the Indian subcontinent>" (sa Ingles)
  4. Subcontinent, Oxford English Dictionaries (2012). Hinango noong 6 Disyembre 2016; Quote: "A large distinguishable part of a continent..." (sa Ingles)
  5. McLeod, John (1 Enero 2002). The History of India (sa wikang Ingles). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313314599 – sa pamamagitan ng/ni Google Books.
  6. Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pahina 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X (sa Ingles)
  7. Ang "Indian subcontinent" ay ginamit ni Henry D. Baker, British India With Notes On Ceylon Afghanistan And Tibet (1915), p. 401. (sa Ingles)
  8. "subcontinent". Oxford English Dictionary (sa wikang Ingles) (ika-3 (na) edisyon). Oxford University Press. Setyembre 2005. (Kailangan ang suskripsyon o maging kasaspi ng publikong aklatan ng UK.) (sa Ingles)
  9. "Indian subcontinent". Oxford English Dictionary (sa wikang Ingles) (ika-3 (na) edisyon). Oxford University Press. Setyembre 2005. (Kailangan ang suskripsyon o maging kasaspi ng publikong aklatan ng UK.) (sa Ingles)
  10. Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pahina 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X (sa Ingles)
    Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, The Third World: states of mind and being, pahina 209, Taylor & Francis, 1988, ISBN 0-04-910121-8 (sa Ingles)
    Boniface, Brian G.; Christopher P. Cooper (2005). Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism (sa wikang Ingles). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-5997-0.
    Judith Schott & Alix Henley, Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, pahina 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0-7506-2050-1 (sa Ingles)
    Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pahina 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-856817-7 (sa Ingles)
    Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pahina 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-04979-9 (sa Ingles)
    Mark Juergensmeyer, The Oxford handbook of global religions, pahina 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-513798-1 (sa Ingles)
    Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pahina 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30787-2 (sa Ingles)
  11. Judith Schott & Alix Henley, Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, pahina 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0750620501 (sa Ingles)
  12. Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pahina 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0198568177 (sa Ingles)
  13. Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pahina 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0415307872 (sa Ingles)
  14. Ronald B. Inden, Imagining India, pahina 51, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1850655200 (sa Ingles)
  15. Tom McArthur, Oxford Guide to World English, pahina 309, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 9780198607717 (sa Ingles)
  16. Raymond Hickey (ed), Standards of English: Codified Varieties around the World, pahina 256, Cambridge University Press, 2012, ISBN 9781139851213 (sa Ingles)
  17. B.H. Farmer, An Introduction to South Asia, pahina 1, Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1983, ISBN 9780416726008, (sa Ingles) "The 'Indian sub continent' is a term that certainly recognises the dominant position of India in both area and population. Since the partition of Indian Empire, use of this term becomes offensive to the Pakistanis and the Bangladeshis."
    Jona Razzaque, Public Interest Environmental Litigation in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, pahina 3, Kluwer Law International, 2004, ISBN 9789041122148 (sa Ingles) "Yet, because citizens of Pakistan (which was carved out of India in 1947 and has had recurring conflicts with India since then) and of Bangladesh (which became separated from Pakistan by civil war in 1971) might find offensive the dominant placement of India in the term "Indian subcontinent", many scholars today prefer the more recently adopted designation 'South Asia.'"
    Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, Religions of South Asia: An Introduction, pahina 3, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9781134593224 (sa Ingles)
    S K Shah, India and Its Neighbours: Renewed Threats and New Directions, pahina 26, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd, 2017, ISBN 9789386367501 (sa Ingles) "Indian analysts, who talk of the Indian sub-continent, wish to keep in mind, in their analyses, the common historical, political, religious and cultural heritage of these three countries. The term sub-continent is used less and less in Pakistan and Bangladesh. The political leadership and the policy-makers in these two countries do not wish to be reminded of this common heritage. Any highlighting of this common heritage by Indian analysts is viewed by them with suspicion—— as indicating a hidden desire to reverse history and undo the 1947 partition."
  18. Lizzie Crouch and Paula McGrath, "Humanity's global battle with mosquitoes", Health check, BBC World Service (sa Ingles)
  19. K. Alan Kronstadt, Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai, India, and Implications for U. S. Interests, pahina 7, Diane Publishing, 2011, ISBN 9781437929539 (sa Ingles)
  20. Aijazuddin Ahmad, Geography of the South Asian subcontinent: A Critical Approach, pahina 17, Concept Publishing Company, 2009, ISBN 9788180695681 (sa Ingles)
  21. Ayesha Jalal, Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia, pahina xiii, Harvard University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780674039070 (sa Ingles)
  22. K. D. Kapur, Nuclear Non-proliferation Diplomacy: Nuclear Power Programmes in the Third World, pahina 365, Lancers Books, 1993, ISBN 9788170950363 (sa Ingles)
    Daya Nath Tripathi (ed), Discourse on Indo European Languages and Culture, pahina 193, Indian Council of Historical Reseach, 2005, ISBN 9788178271200
    Muhammad Akram Khan, What Is Wrong with Islamic Economics?: Analysing the Present State and Future Agenda, pahina 183, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, ISBN 9781782544159 (sa Ingles)
  23. John McLeod, The history of India, pahina 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4; (sa Ingles) pananda: Hindi sinama ni McLeod ang Afghanistan sa subkontinenteng Indiyano o Timog Asya;
    Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, The Third World: states of mind and being, pahina 209, Taylor & Francis, 1988, ISBN 0-04-910121-8 (sa Ingles)
    Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pahina 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-856817-7; Quote: "The term South Asian refers to populations originating from the Indian subcontinent, effectively India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; (sa Ingles)
    Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pahina 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-04979-9 (sa Ingles)
    Mark Juergensmeyer, The Oxford handbook of global religions, pahina 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-513798-1 (sa Ingles)
    Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pahina 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30787-2 (sa Ingles)
  24. Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, Religions of South Asia: An Introduction, pahina 3, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9781134593224 (sa Ingles)
  25. Kathleen M. Baker and Graham P. Chapman, The Changing Geography of Asia, pahina 10, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 9781134933846 (sa Ingles)