Czechoslovakia

(Idinirekta mula sa Tsekoslobakya)

Ang Czechoslovakia o Czecho-Slovakia,[1] Tseko at Eslobako: Československo, Česko-Slovensko[2]) ay isang estadong soberano sa Gitnang Europa na nabuhay mula noong Oktubre 1918, na kung saan ay idineklara nito ang pagiging malaya sa Imperyong Austro-Hungarian, hanggang 1992. Mula noong 1939 hanggang 1945, ang estado ay hindi nakakuha ng de facto pagkabuhay, dahil sa dibisyong militar at pakikisali sa Nazi Germany, subalit ang pinatapong gobyerno ng Czechoslovak ay hindi man lang tumuloy sa panahong ito.. Noong 1945 ang silangang bahagi ng Carpathian Ruthenia ay nakuha ng Unyong Sobyet. Noong 1 Enero 1993, ang Tseko-Slobakya ay payapang nahati sa Tsekya at Eslobakya.

Czechoslovakia

Československo, Česko-Slovensko
1918–1992
Watawat ng Czechoslovakia
Flag since 1920
Eskudo ng armas noong 1990–1992 ng Czechoslovakia
Eskudo ng armas noong 1990–1992
Salawikain: Tseko: Pravda vítězí
("Truth prevails"; 1918–1990)
Latin: Veritas Vincit
("Truth prevails"; 1990–1992)
Location of Czechoslovakia
KabiseraPraga (Praha)
Karaniwang wikaTseko at Eslobako
PamahalaanRepublika
Pangulo 
• 1918–1935
Tomáš G. Masaryk (first)
• 1989–1992
Václav Havel (last)
Punong Ministro 
• 1918–1919
Karel Kramář
• 1992
Jan Stráský
Kasaysayan 
• Kalayaan magmula sa Austria–Hungarya
28 Oktubre 1918
• Pananakop ng Alemanya
1939
• Kalayaan
1945
• Paglansag ng Czechoslovakia
31 Disyembre 1992
Lawak
1921140,446 km2 (54,227 mi kuw)
1993127,900 km2 (49,400 mi kuw)
Populasyon
• 1921
13607385
• 1993
15600000
SalapiCzechoslovak koruna
Kodigong pantelepono42
Internet TLD.cs
Pinalitan
Pumalit
Austria–Hungarya
Republikang Czech
Slovakia
Zakarpattia Oblast#History
Kasalukuyang kodigo ng ISO 3166-3:        CSHH
Ang kodigong pantawag na 42 ay iniretiro noong Taglamig ng 1997. Ang saklaw ng numero ay pinaghati-hati, at muling inilaan para sa Czech Republic, Slovakia at Liechtenstein.
Czechoslovakia color.png

Mga sanggunianBaguhin

  1. "Treaty of Versailles". 1919. Nakuha noong 6 April 2010.
  2. "Ján Kačala: Máme nový názov federatívnej republiky (The New Name of the Federal Republic), In: Kultúra Slova (official publication of the Slovak Academy of Sciences Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics) 6/1990 pp. 192-197" (PDF). Tinago mula sa orihinal (PDF) noong 2011-08-19. Nakuha noong 2010-10-10.

TalaaklatanBaguhin

  • Heimann, Mary. Czechoslovakia: The State That Failed (2009). the best scholarly history in English, but with a negative tone stressing maltreatment of minorities.
  • Hermann, A. H. A History of the Czechs (1975)
  • Kalvoda, Josef. The Genesis of Czechoslovakia (1986)
  • Leff, Carol Skalnick. National Conflict in Czechoslovakia: The Making and Remaking of a State, 1918-87 (1988)
  • Mantey, Victor. A History of the Czechoslovak Republic (1973)
  • Myant, Martin. The Czechoslovak Economy, 1948-88 (1989)
  • Naimark, Norman, and Leonid Gibianskii, eds. The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949 (1997) online edition
  • Paul, David. Czechoslovakia: Profile of a Socialist Republic at the Crossroads of Europe (1990)
  • Renner, Hans. A History of Czechoslovakia since 1945 (1989);
  • Seton-Watson, R. W. A History of the Czechs and Slovaks (1943)
  • Stone, Norman, and E. Strouhal, eds.Czechoslovakia: Crossroads and Crises, 1918-88 (1989)
  • Wheaton, Bernard; Zdenek Kavav. "The Velvet Revolution: Czechoslovakia, 1988-1991". (1992).
  • Wolchik, Sharon L. Czechoslovakia: Politics, Society, and Economics (1990)
  • online books and articles