Si John von Neumann (play /vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; Disyembre 28, 1903 – Pebrero 8, 1957) ay isang ipinanganak sa Hungary na Amerikanong matematiko at polymath. Siya ay nakagawa ng malalaking mga ambag sa isang malawakang bilang ng mga larangan [1] kabilang sa matematika(pundasyon ng matematika), functional analysis, teoriyang ergodiko, heometriya, topolohiya, at numerical analysis), pisika (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamika, at dinamikang pluido), economika (teoriya ng laro), agham pangkompyuter (arkitekturang Von Neumann, pagpoprogramang linyar, kumokopya sa sariling makina, pagkukwentang stokastiko), at estadistika.[2]

John von Neumann
Von Neumann in the 1940s
KapanganakanNeumann János Lajos
28 Disyembre 1903(1903-12-28)
Budapest, Austria-Hungary
KamatayanFebruary 8, 1957(1957-02-08) (aged 53)
Walter Reed General Hospital
Washington, D.C., United States
TirahanUnited States
KabansaanHungarian and American
LaranganComputer science, economics, mathematics, physics
InstitusyonUniversity of Berlin
Princeton University
Institute for Advanced Study
Site Y, Los Alamos
Alma materUniversity of Pázmány Péter
ETH Zürich
Tagapayo sa pagkaduktorLipót Fejér
Iba pang mga tagapayong pang-akademiyaLászló Rátz
Mga estudyante sa pagkaduktorDonald B. Gillies
Israel Halperin
Iba pang nakikilalang mga estudyantePaul Halmos
Clifford Hugh Dowker
Kinikilala dahil saAbelian von Neumann algebra
Affiliated operator
Amenable group
Arithmetic logic unit
Artificial viscosity
Axiom of regularity
Axiom of limitation of size
Backward induction
Blast wave (fluid dynamics)
Bounded set (topological vector space)
Carry-save adder
Class (set theory)
Decoherence theory
Computer virus
Commutation theorem
Continuous geometry
Direct integral
Doubly stochastic matrix
Duality Theorem
Density matrix
Durbin–Watson statistic
Game theory
Hyperfinite type II factor
Ergodic theory
EDVAC
explosive lenses
Lattice theory
Lifting theory
Inner model
Inner model theory
Interior point method
Mutual assured destruction
Merge sort
Middle-square method
Minimax theorem
Monte Carlo method
Normal-form game
Pointless topology
Polarization identity
Pseudorandomness
PRNG
Quantum mutual information
Radiation implosion
Rank ring
Operator theory
Operation Greenhouse
Self-replication
Software whitening
Standard probability space
Stochastic computing
Subfactor
von Neumann algebra
von Neumann architecture
Von Neumann bicommutant theorem
Von Neumann cardinal assignment
Von Neumann cellular automaton
von Neumann constant (two of them)
Von Neumann interpretation
von Neumann measurement scheme
Von Neumann Ordinals
Von Neumann universal constructor
Von Neumann entropy
von Neumann Equation
Von Neumann neighborhood
Von Neumann paradox
Von Neumann regular ring
Von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory
Von Neumann spectral theory
Von Neumann universe
Von Neumann conjecture
Von Neumann's inequality
Stone–von Neumann theorem
Von Neumann's trace inequality
Von Neumann stability analysis
Quantum statistical mechanics
Von Neumann extractor
Von Neumann ergodic theorem
Ultrastrong topology
Von Neumann–Morgenstern utility theorem
ZND detonation model
Natatanging mga gantimpalaBôcher Memorial Prize (1938), Enrico Fermi Award (1956)
Lagda
John von Neumann's signature

Siya ay pangkalahatang itinuturing na isa sa pinakadakilang mga matematiko ng modernong kasaysayan.[3] [4][5][6] Siya ay ipinanganak sa Budapest sa parehong panahon nina Theodore von Kármán (b. 1881), George de Hevesy (b. 1885), Leó Szilárd (b. 1898), Eugene Wigner (b. 1902), Edward Teller (b. 1908), at Paul Erdős (b. 1913).[7]

Si Von Neumann ay isang pionero ng paglalapat ng teoriyang operador sa quantum mechanics sa pagpapaunlad ng functional analysis. Isa siyang pangunahing kasapi ng Manhattan Project at Institute for Advanced Study sa Princeton (bilang sa ilan sa mga orihinal na hinirang) at isang mahalagang pigura sa pagpapaunlad ng teoriya ng laro[1][8] at mga konsepto ng cellular automata,[1] ang universal constructor at dihital na kompyuter. Ang pagsisiyasat na matematikal ni Von Neumann ng istruktura ng replikasyon sa sarili ay nauna sa pagkakatuklas ng istruktura ng DNA.[9] .

Si Von Neumann ay sumulat ng mga 150 inilimbag na papel sa kanyang buhay, 60 sa purong matematika, 20 sa pisika, at 60 sa nilalapat na matematika.

Mga sanggunianBaguhin

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ed Regis (1992-11-08). "Johnny Jiggles the Planet". The New York Times. Nakuha noong 2008-02-04.
  2. Glimm, p. vii
  3. Glimm, p. vii
  4. Dictionary of Scientific Bibliography, ed. C. C. Gillispie, Scibners, 1981
  5. Glimm, p. 7
  6. Blair, pp. 89–104.
  7. Doran, p. 2
  8. Nelson, David (2003). The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics. London: Penguin. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-14-101077-0.
  9. Rocha, L.M. "Lecture Notes of I-585-Biologically Inspired Computing Course, Indiana University" (PDF). |contribution= ignored (tulong)