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Ang marijuana o sa Ingles ay cannabis ay isang preparasyon ng halamang cannabis na ginagamit bilang sikoaktibo at gamot o medisina. Ang pangunahing sikoaktibong sangkap na kompuwesto nito ang tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) na isa sa 483 alam na kompuwesto ng halamang ito.[3] May iba pang mga 84 cannabinoid dito gaya ng cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)[4][5] at cannabigerol (CBG).

Marijuana
Cannabis Plant.jpg
Namumulaklak na halamang Cannabis
BotanicalCannabis
Mga pinagmulang halamanCannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis
Part(s) of plantbulaklak
Pinagmulang heograpikoSentral Asya at Timog Asya.[1]
Mga aktibong sangkapTetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol, Cannabinol, Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Mga pangunahing prodyuserAfghanistan, Burma, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Paraguay,[2] Thailand, Turkey, United States
Mga pangunahing konsumerBuong mundo

Ang marijuana ay kadalasang kinokonsumo dahil sa mga epektong sikoaktibo at pisiolohikal nito na kinabibilangan ng tumaas na mood o pakiramdam o euphoria, relaksasyon [6] at tumaas na gana [7]

Ang marijuana ay ginagamit bilang drogang panlibangan o medisina gayundin bilang bahagi ng mga ritong pang-relihiyon. Ang pinakamaagang paggamit nito ay mula ika-3 milenyo BCE.[8] Simula ika-20 siglo, ang pagmamay-ari ng marijuana ay ipinagbabawal o ilegal sa maraming mga bansa sa buong mundo.[9][10] Noong 2004, ang paggamit ng marijuana sa buong mundo ay tinatayang 4% ng populasyon ng mundo o mga 162 milyong katao at ang tinatayang 0.6% (22.5 milyong katao) ay gumagamit nito sa araw-araw.[11]

MekanismoBaguhin

Ang mekanismo ng marijuana sa tao ay naunawaan lamang bago matapos ang ika-20 siglo. Ang THC ng marijuana ay umaasal sa dalawang uri ng mga cannabinoid receptor sa tao na CB1 receptor at CB2 receptor na parehong G-Protein coupled receptor. Ang CB1 receptor ay matatagpuan sa utak at sa ilang mga peripheral tissue at ang CB2 receptor ay matatagpuan sa mga peripheral tissue gayundin sa mga selulang neuroglial. Ang mga cannabinoid receptor ay pinapagana ng mga cannabinoid na maaaring nalilikha mula sa loob ng katawan ng tao (endocannabinoid) o ipinakilala sa katawan ng tao gaya ng pagkonsumo ng marijuana o ibang mga sintetiko nito.

EpektoBaguhin

Ang cannabidiol, isa sa 104 na iba't-ibang kemikal na nasa marijuana, ay mayroong epektong pleiotropic na nangangahulugang ang epekto nito ay maaring iba-iba sa bawat isang tao[12].[13] Ang mga kanais nais na epekto nito ay relaksasyon at katamtamang euphoria (pakiramdam na "high"). Ang mga hindi kanais nais na epekto nito ang nabawasang panandaliang memorya, tuyong bibig, huminang kakayahan ng paggalaw, pamumula ng mga mata.

Kabilang din sa mga epekto ang pagbilis nang tibok ng puso, mataas na gana sa pagkain, at pagbaba nang presyon ng dugo.

Pagiging adiktiboBaguhin

Ayon kay Dr. Jack E. Henningfield ng National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010), sa mga nirangguhang anim na sustansiya sa kanilang pagiging adiktibo (marijuana, caffeine, cocaine, alak, heroin at nicotine), ang marijuana ang pinaka-hindi adiktibo, ang caffeine ang ikalawang pinaka-hindi adiktibo at ang nicotine ang pinaka-adiktibo.[14]

Paggamit medikalBaguhin

 
Medikal na marijuana

Ang marijuana ay ginawang legal sa 18 estado ng Estados Unidos at Distrito ng Columbia para sa gamit-medikal. Kabilang sa medikal na paggamit ng marijuana ang pagpapaginhawa ng pagkahilo at pagsusuka, stimulasyon ng gutom sa kemoterapiya at mga pasyenteng may AIDS, pagbaba ng presyon sa matang intraokular at para sa pangkalahatang pagpapaginhawa ng mga kirot sa katawan. Ang kompuwesto ng marijuana ay epektibo rin para gamutin ang schizophrenia ayon sa mga siyentipiko.

Ang marijuanang pang medikal ay natagpuang nagpaginhawa ng mga ilang sintomas ng multiple sclerosis[15] at spinal cord injuries[16][17][18][19][20]

Ang ibang mga pag-aaral ay nagsasaad na ang marijuana o mga cannabinoid ay magagamit sa paggamot ng pag-abuso ng alak,[21] amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,[22][23] collagen-induced arthritis,[24] asthma,[25] atherosclerosis,[26] bipolar disorder,[27][28] colorectal cancer,[29] HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy,[30]depression,[31][32][33][34] dystonia,[35] epilepsy,[36][37][38] digestive diseases,[39] gliomas,[40][41] hepatitis C,[42] Huntington's disease,[43][44] leukemia,[45] skin tumors,[46] methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),[47] Parkinson's disease,[48] pruritus,[49][50] posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD),[51] psoriasis,[52] sickle-cell disease,[53] sleep apnea,[54] at anorexia nervosa.[55]

Epekto sa kanserBaguhin

Natagpuan ng isang pag-aaral ng Universidad Complutense de Madrid na ang mga kemikal sa marijuana ay nagsanhi ng kamatayan ng mga selulang kanser ng utak ng tao. Sa mga selulang kanser ng utak ng tao na nilagay sa mga daga na ginamot ng kemikal ng marijuana, ang tumor ay lumiit. Natagpuan ng pag-aaral nila na ang THC ay nag-alis ng mga selulang kanser nang walang masamang epekto sa mga malulusog na selula.[56]

Ayon sa pag-aaral ng California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute noong 2007 at 2010, ang cannabidiol ay nagpahinto sa kanser sa suso na kumalat na sa buong katawan sa pamamagitan ng downregulation ng isang gene na tinatawag na ID1.[57]

[58]

Mga sanggunianBaguhin

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