Imperyong Timurida

Ang Imperyong Timurida (Persa: تیموریان‎), tinalaga ang sarili bilang Gurkani (Persa: گورکانیان‎), ay isang imperyong Persyanatong[1][2] Turko-Mongol na binubuo ng makabagong Uzbekistan, Iran, ang katimugang Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, karamihan ng Gitnang Asia, gayon din ang kontemporaryong Indya, Pakistan, Syria at Turkey.

Itinatag ang imperyo ni Timur (kilala din Tamerlane), isang warlord o pinuno ng militar na may lahing Turko-Mongol, na itinatag ang imperyo sa pagitan ng 1370 at kanyang kamatayan noong 1405. Nakita niya ang sarili bilang dakilang tagapagpanumbalik ng Imperyong Mongol ni Genghis Khan, na pinapahalagaan ang sarili bilang tagapagmana ni Genghis, at labis na inugnay sa Borjigin. Nagpatuloy si Timur ng masiglang ugnayan sa kalakalan sa dinastiyang Ming ng Tsina at ang Ginintuang Horda, kasama ang mga diplomatikong Tsino tulad nina Ma Huan at Chen Cheng na regular na naglalakbay tungong kanluran sa Samarkand upang kolektahin ang tributo at magbenta ng mga produkto, na pinapagpatuloy ang tradisyon ng imperyong Mongol. Napunta ang imperyo sa Renasimiyentong Timurida, partikular noong paghahari ng astronomo at matematikong si Ulugh Begh.

Noong 1467, nawala sa namamayaning dinastiyang Timurida, o mga Timurida, ang karamihan ng Persya sa konpederasyong Aq Qoyunlu. Subalit nagpatuloy ang mga kasapi ng dinastiyang Timurida sa paghahari sa mas maliit na mga estado, na kilala minsang bilang mga emiratong Timurida, sa Gitnang Asya at ilang bahagi ng Indya. Noong ika-16 na dantaon, sinalakay ni Babur, isang prisipeng Timurida mula sa Ferghan (makabagong Uzbekistan), ang Kabulistan (makabagong Afghanistan) at itinatag ang isang maliit na kaharian doon. Pagkaraan ng dalawampung taon, ginamit niya ang kaharian bilang isang paraan upang masalakay ang Indya at maitatag ang Imperyong Mughal.

KasaysayanBaguhin

Sinakop ni Timur ang malaking bahagi ng sinaunang malaking mga teritoryo ng Persiyano sa Gitnang Asya, panguhnahin ang Transoxiana at Khorasan, mula 1363 pataas na may iba't ibang mga alyansa (Samarkand noong 1366, at Balkh noong 1369), at nakilala bilang ang naghahari sa kanila noong 1370. Opisyal na umaakto sa ngalan na Suurgatmish, ang Chagatai khan, nilupig niya ang Transoxania at Khwarazm sa mga taon na sumunod. Noong dekada 1360, nakontrol niya ang kanlurang Chagatai Khanate at habang bilang emir, sumasailalim siya sa khan sa pangalan lamang, sa katotohanan, kinuha ni Timur ang mga khan bilang tau-tauhan na mga naghahari. Patuloy na nagdodomina ang kanlurang mga khan na Chagatai ng mga prinsipeng Timurida noong ika-15 at ika-16 na dantaon at ang kanilang kahalagaang tau-tauhan ay nabawasan sa kalaunan sa walang halaga.

KalinanganBaguhin

 
Si Timur – Porenseng rekonstruksyon ng mukha ni M. Gerasimov, 1941

Bagaman nagmula ang mga Timurida mula sa angkang Barlas, na Tinurkong Mongol ang pinagmulan,[3] niyakap nila ang kalinangang Persyano,[4] nag-Islam, at nanirahan sa Turkestan at Khorasan. Samakatuwid, may dalawang karakter ang panahong Timurida,[5] na sinasalamin ang parehong Turko-Mongol na pinagmulan at Persyanong panitikan, artistiko, at magalang na mataas na kalinangan ng dinastiya.[6][7]

WikaBaguhin

Noong panahong Timurida, sumanga ang lipunang Gitnang Asya, na may responsibilidad ng pamahalaan at ang pamamahala ay nahati sa militar at sibilyang kalagayan kasabay ng mga etnikong linya. Noong mga unang mga yugto, ekslusibong halos Turko-Mongol ang militar, habang eksklusibong Persyano ang sibilyan at administratibong elemento. Ang sinasalitang wika na binabahagi ng lahat ng Turko-Mongol sa buong lugar ay Chaghatay. Nakinig ang mga pampolitikang organisasyon sa kapatagang-nomadikong sistema ng pagtangkilik na ipinakilala ni Genghis Khan.[8] Bagaman, Persiyano ang pangunahing wika ng panahon na iyon, na katutubong wika ng mga Tājīk (Persyano) na bahagi ng lipunan at ang wika ng pag-aaral na kinuha sa pamamagitan ng literato o urbanong mga tao. Babad na si Timur sa kulturang Persyano[9] at sa karamihan ng mga teritoryo, sinama niya ito, at Persyano ang pangunahing wika ng pamamahala at panitikang kalinangan. Samakatuwid, ang wika ng nanirahang "diwan" ay Persyano, at mga eskriba nito ay kailangang lubos na sanay sa kulturang Persyano, kahit ano man ang kanilang etnikong pinagmulan.[10] Ang Persyano ang naging opisyal na estadong wika ng Imperyong Timurida[7][6] at nagsilbi bilang wika ng pamamahala, kasaysayan, panitikan at panulaan.[11] Katutubo at "wika sa tahanan" ang Chaghatay sa pamilyang Timurida,[12] habang nagsilbi ang Arabe bilang wikang par excellence ng agham, pilosopiya, teologo, at ang relihiyosong agham.[13]

Mga naghariBaguhin

Mga emperador (Emir)Baguhin

  • Timur
  • Pir Muhammad (anak ni Jahangir) (naghari 1405–1407)
  • Khalil Sultan
  • Shah Rukh
  • Ulugh Beg
  • Abdal-Latif Mirza
  • Abdullah Mirza
  • Sultan Muhammad
  • Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza
  • Sultan Ahmed Mirza
  • Sultan Mahmud Mirza
  • Mirza Shah Mahmud
  • Ibrahim Mirza
  • Abu Sa'id Mirza
  • Sultan Husayn Bayqara
  • Yadgar Muhammad Mirza (naghari 1469–1470)
  • Badi' al-Zaman Mirza

Mga sanggunianBaguhin

  1. Subtelny, Maria (2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran (sa wikang Ingles). BRILL. mga pa. 40–41. ISBN 978-9004160316. Nevertheless, in the complex process of transition, members of the Timurid dynasty and their Turko-Mongolian supporters became acculturated by the surrounding Persianate millieu adopting Persian cultural models and tastes and acting as patrons of Persian language, culture, painting, architecture and music. [...] The last members of the dynasty, notably Sultan-Abu Sa'id and Sultan-Husain, in fact came to be regarded as ideal Perso-Islamic rulers who devoted as much attention to agricultural development as they did to fostering Persianate court culture.
  2. B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edisyong Online, 2006 (sa Ingles)
  3. M. S. Asimov at C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO Regional Office, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103467-7, p. 320: "One of his followers was ... Timur of the Barlas tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled ... in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania ..." (sa Ingles)
  4. Lehmann, F. "Zaher ud-Din Babor — Founder of Mughal empire". Encyclopædia Iranica (sa wikang Ingles). New York City: Columbia University Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies. mga pa. 320–323. Nakuha noong 2012-09-17. His origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so Babor was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results ...
  5. "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (sa wikang Ingles) (ika-6 (na) edisyon). New York City: Columbia University. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006-12-05. Nakuha noong 2006-11-08.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Spuler, Bertold. "Central Asia". Encyclopædia Iranica (sa wikang Ingles). Nakuha noong 2008-04-02. [Part] v. In the Mongol and Timurid periods: ... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 ... Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ...
  7. 7.0 7.1 Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi (1966). Muhakamat Al-Lughatain (Judgment of Two Languages) (sa wikang Ingles). Robert Devereux (ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. OCLC 3615905. LCC PL55.J31 A43. Any linguist of today who reads the essay will inevitably conclude that Nawa'i argued his case poorly, for his principal argument is that the Turkic lexicon contained many words for which the Persian had no exact equivalents and that Persian-speakers had therefore to use the Turkic words. This is a weak reed on which to lean, for it is a rare language indeed that contains no loan words. In any case, the beauty of a language and its merits as a literary medium depend less on size of vocabulary and purity of etymology that on the euphony, expressiveness and malleability of those words its lexicon does include. Moreover, even if Nawā'ī's thesis were to be accepted as valid, he destroyed his own case by the lavish use, no doubt unknowingly, of non-Turkic words even while ridiculing the Persians for their need to borrow Turkic words. The present writer has not made a word count of Nawa'i's text, but he would estimate conservatively that at least one half the words used by Nawa'i in the essay are Arabic or Persian in origin. To support his claim of the superiority of the Turkic language, Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian – it was, after all, the official state language – while Persians saw no reason to bother learning Turkic which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen.
  8. The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. Sinalin, pinatnugot, at kinomentaryo ni W. M. Thackston (2002). Modern Library. (sa Ingles)
  9. Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube, translated by A. M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. p. 75 (sa Ingles)
  10. Beatrice Forbes Manz. The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, 1999. p. 109: "In Temür's government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy solely civil, and the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. It is in fact difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing many tasks. (In discussiong the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. The language of the settled population and the chancery ("diwan") was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür's Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy." (sa Ingles)
  11. B. F. Manz; W. M. Thackston; D. J. Roxburgh; L. Golombek; L. Komaroff; R. E. Darley-Doran (2007). "Timurids". Encyclopaedia of Islam (sa wikang Ingles). Brill Publishers. During the Timurid period, three languages, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic were in use. The major language of the period was Persian, the native language of the Tajik (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban Turks. Persian served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry.
  12. B. F. Manz; W. M. Thackston; D. J. Roxburgh; L. Golombek; L. Komaroff; R. E. Darley-Doran (2007). "Timurids". Encyclopaedia of Islam (sa wikang Ingles) (ika-Online (na) edisyon). Brill Publishers. What is now called Chaghatay Turkish, which was then called simply türki, was the native and 'home' language of the Timurids ...
  13. B. F. Manz; W. M. Thackston; D. J. Roxburgh; L. Golombek; L. Komaroff; R. E. Darley-Doran (2007). "Timurids". Encyclopaedia of Islam (sa wikang Ingles) (ika-Online (na) edisyon). Brill Publishers. As it had been prior to the Timurids and continued to be after them, Arabic was the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences. Much of the astronomical work of Ulugh Beg and his co-workers ... is in Arabic, although they also wrote in Persian. Theological works ... are generally in Arabic.