Tagagamit:Richard Relucio/Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

University of the City of Manila
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
PLM logo.GIF
SawikainBenchmarking the New Filipino University[1]
Sawikain sa Tagalog{{{mottotl}}}
Itinatag noongJune 19, 1965[2]
UriPublic, City University System
EndowmentGreen Arrow Up.svgPhP 753.6 million (including the OMMC budget)[2][3]
PanguloAdel A. Tamano, AB, JD, MPA, LlM (Harvard)[4]
Executive SecretaryErnesto P. Maceda, Jr., AB, JD, LlM (Columbia)[5]
LokasyonPilipinas Manila, Philippines
HymnPamantasang Mahal (Beloved University)
ApilasyonASAIHL,[6] AUAP, IAU, ALCU, DCS-Manila, Intramuros Consortium, among others

The University of the City of Manila (Filipino: Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila; commonly abbreviated as PLM, or simply known as Pamantasan[7]), is the first[5][8] and largest city government-funded,[9][7] tuition-free,[10][7][11] university in the Philippines. It also holds the distinction of being the first Philippine institution of higher learning to have its official name in Filipino.[7][8][12]

PLM is composed of several autonomous colleges and schools in Intramuros, other parts of Manila and in its partner institutions in the Philippines and abroad, each conferring undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. The administration is in the process of building a university system embracing all the districts in the capital city as well as to include a science and technology institute and a polytechnic school on extension campuses.[13] Aside from teaching, PLM is also involved in research and social outreach with linkages, affiliations and recognition from various national and international organizations and institutions.[7]

The Philippines' Commission on Higher Education has considered PLM as a model for public institutions across the country.[14][15] Furthermore, it has cited several PLM programs and departments as Centers of Excellence.[15] A study using cumulative data from 1999 to 2003[16] showed that during the said period PLM was among the top five schools nationwide[2][17] in terms of board exam passing rate. In the same study, it was one among three public universities in the top ten category.[4][18]


PLM is non-stock,[11] non-profit,[11] nonsectarian, coeducational research-oriented public institution,[9] operating chiefly from 12 undergraduate schools,[8] 2 professional schools[8] and 8 graduate schools in its main campus at Intramuros,[8] and in 2 district colleges[19][20] and a score of specialized centers and satellite facilities in other parts of Manila,[7] including an integrated learning center for toddlers called the Mabuhay Learning Center,[8][21] and a training hospital, the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center,[8] that contribute to the university’s thrust on outreach and community service.[8] In addition, it holds off-campus programs through its open university system[7][8][22][23][24] with various partner institutions throughout the Philippines and in international schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia[25] and in Thailand.[26]

Approximately, the PLM has 50,000 alumni,[27] a combined student body of 11,000 students,[2] and 2,000 faculty.[2]

Academic Division Location(s) Established
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, Main Campus
Intramuros, Manila
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, District Colleges
Tondo and Quiapo, Manila
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, Open University
Philippines, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand
The panoramic of view of the PLM Main Campus at the heart of Intramuros.


PLM receives most of its funding from the City of Manila, research grants, and alumni contributions. The city government spends about four to five times the national average per student at the PLM.[28]

The buget allocation for PLM steadily increased over the years. From its initial budget of PhP 1 million in 1967, government financial aid increased up to PhP 148 million in 1999.[11] In 2003-2004, the PLM annual budget rose up to PhP 386 million.[29][30] In 2006, the city government proposed that the government financial support for PLM should be no less than PhP 210 million annually.[26] Due to the increase in the University’s enrollment as well as curricular programs, the city government added PhP 50 million to the total amount of financial assistance to PLM for the school year 2008-2009.[31] At present, PLM enjoys about PhP 500 million annual budget,[2] while its training hospital, Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, has a separate budgetary allocation amounting to PhP 253.6 million.[3]

The city government has continued to be responsive to the physical needs of the PLM, and it has invested substantially in upgrading the University’s facilities, workforce and faculty to ensure that students get quality education at par with any learning institution in the world.[32]

City University SystemBaguhin

The city government intends to make the City of Manila as the national center of education.[1] PLM, being the city's premiere educational institution, adopted a new motto, which is Benchmaking the New Filipino University,[1][2] as it realigns itself towards the city government’s goal.

During the opening of the 7th City Council, Mayor Alfredo Lim, in his speech, pledged to increase the budget of PLM. Also, he envisioned to build more technical and vocational schools for the underprivileged but deserving students of Manila that shall be integrated into the city university system. The PLM Main Campus at Intramuros will soon be dedicated to graduate studies and research.[13] Likewise, he expressed hope that the city government can regain jurisdiction over Intramuros from the national government.[33] Regaining Intramuros from the national government also figures in the expansion plans of the PLM.[33][34]

City University StatusBaguhin

Atty. Carlos Carlos, Manila City Legal Officer IV, explained that PLM is 80% a State University and 20% a Local University.[35] Unlike any other local colleges and universities, which are formed out of their municipal or city ordinance, PLM has its own charter, which was authored by the Philippine Congress, similar to other state universities and colleges. Essentially, PLM is classified as a city university since its funding comes from the city government.[35]

The vision-mission of PLM can be summarized as follows:

The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, as a Filipino and Public University, was established to serve the less privileged but deserving students of Manila. Moreover, it aims to be a caring and leading-edge university that is committed to develop professionals, leaders, and citizens dedicated to the progressive transformation of the City of Manila and the nation.[6]


The late President Diosdado Macapagal, who himself visited the University, said that PLM is "a unique university because it is the first community-oriented and socially conscious university in the country." He added that, "it gives poor but deserving public high school graduates of the community the means to acquire higher education." Moreover, he recognized PLM's emerging status as "one of the top universities in the country."[27] Her daughter, PresidentGloria Macapagal-Arroyo cited PLM for having a "culture of excellence," and commended the university for what she had believed as its "impressive" accomplishments in various fields.[36][37]

The country's leading newspaper, The Philippine Daily Inquirer, described PLM as a local university with a national character and reputation. [26][38] US Ambassador Kristie Kenney, in her speech during the 40th Commencement Exercises at the PLM Grandstand, praised PLM for building a "culture of commitment to public service in its students, faculty and alumni."[39] In an article in the Business Mirror, PLM was considered as the "highest symbol of Manila’s public educational system which radiates another form of power and influence."[40] Websites such as Manila Board regarded that PLM is one of leading and prime public universities in the country today.[41]

On August 13, 2008, PLM President Atty. Adel A. Tamano, in his column at the Manila Times wrote that PLM is "a unique learning institution" and is "essentially an honors school where only the students from lower income families with excellent scholastic records are admitted."[4]

However, PLM is not a perfect institution, and the university had been criticized in the past for the 'reconsideration' cases, wherein some students who failed to meet the university’s standards for retention were readmitted because of the so-called 'backers'. In order to resolve this issue, the city government has insulated the University from political pressure so as not to compromise its status as one of the country's leading educational institutions.[28][42][43]


There are no set methods for ranking institutions in the Philippines. Aside from comparisons in terms of accreditation, autonomy, and centers of excellence awarded by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), there are attempts to rank schools based on performance in board exams conducted by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC). The PRC and CHED sometimes publish reports on these results.[44][45]

Based on the study using cumulative data from 1994-1998, the PLM emerged sixth (6th).[44] For the ten-year period (1992-2001), however, PLM placed ninth (9th).[45] In the study covering 1999-2003, the PLM placed fifth (5th), making it one of only two public universities in the top five list.[4][16][17][46][47]

PLM criticizes the Times Higher Education Supplement-Quacquarelli Symonds opinion surveys and the now-defunct Asiaweek rankings for what PLM considers as elitist views of higher education and criteria that do not apply to the unique landscape of each participating universities. The administration also believes that these rankings say nothing or very little about whether students are actually learning at particular colleges or universities.[48]

Social involvementBaguhin

Grounded in its commitment to the City of Manila and the whole country, PLM implements a framework of action that fosters a culture of service among its administrators, faculty and alumni dubbed as "Malasakit sa Kapwa, Malasakit sa Bansa," in which all curricular programs of the University are anchored.[49][16][50]

As one of the two participating schools of medicine in "Bagong Doktor para sa Bayan" of the national government,[51][52] the PLM College of Medicine makes sure that medical interns are stationed for months in far-flung barangays[53] to immerse themselves and apply community dynamics, family medicine theories, and appropriate technologies with the people of the community.[4] Because of this, the Department of Health has cited the College as a model for other medical schools in the country.[4][50]

Students in the PLM College of Nursing render service to 44 city-run health centers as part of their community health nursing internship.[54] Senior students live with people in the rural areas for eight weeks and implement several socio-civic and health projects.[49][55] Although they are not required of service contracts,[56] they are encouraged to stay for two years to serve the country before going abroad.[50]

Physical therapy students in their last year in college are required to apply their learnings in various settings, including rehabilitation centers in marginalized communities.[50]

As for the faculty members and students of the PLM College of Human Development, they visit communities in Manila and assist in conducting activities such as teaching preschoolers in the city's barangay day care centers.[50]

Similar activities are undertaken by the colleges that take on different approaches as in holding outreach programs in their field work, off-campus activities and on-the-job trainings or practicum.[50]

The PLM communities have also joined the Caritas Manila through Intramuros Consortium Outreach and Environment Committee (ICOEC) in its dental and medical missions in various communities.[57] In 1993, together with Tugon-RESCUE, the university's Community University Extension Services (CUES) continued with its outreach programs for the slum communities of Tondo.[58] From 1999 up to present, PLM, in cooperation with the Shalom Club of the Philippines-Manila Chapter and the Rotary Club of the Philippines, has been actively donating blood for the patients of the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Ospital ng Tondo and Dr. Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center.[59] Similar bloodletting campaigns were conducted by other organizations within PLM such as the "Patak-patak na Pagmamahal" by the PLM Samaritans, "Blood Rush" by the Brotherhood of Medical Scholars and the "Operation Lifeline" by the PLM ROTC Unit.[59]

Research and developmentBaguhin

PLM conducts studies and research projects that aim to aid in policy-making and in the production of prototypes that can be useful to both the University and the industry through the Intramuros Consortium[60] and its own research divisions. Moreover, PLM is one of the four academic institutions that were chosen as member of the Metropolitan Manila Industry and Energy Research and Development Consortium (MMIERDC) of the Department of Science and Technology.[61]


Board of RegentsBaguhin

The Presidents of the
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

University of the City of Manila
Dr. Benito F. Reyes, 23 February 1967 – 23 June 1972
Dr. Consuelo L. Blanco, 21 December 1972 – 31 May 1978
Dr. Ramon D. Bagatsing, 01 June 1978 – 27 October 1982
Dr. Jose D. Villanueva, 14 January 1983 – 30 June 1989
Dr. Benjamin G. Tayabas, 01 July 1989 – 24 June 1996
Dr. Versailey dela Cruz, 25 June 1996 – 30 April 1999
Dr. Benjamin G. Tayabas, 24 February 2000 – August 2007
Atty. Adel A. Tamano, 04 August 2007 – Present

Given its chartered and autonomous status, the PLM follows its own Board of Regents; it does not directly abide by the system imposed by the Commission on Higher Education.[62] The Board of Regents, the highest decision-making body of PLM, has the authority to grant diplomas, certificates and titles to students who have completed their academic programs and validate graduation of students.[62]

The six-member Board is composed of the President of the PLM, a representative of the PLM faculty, a distinguished alumnus, a respected educator, and one other respected professional, and the Superintendent of the Division of City Schools-Manila. Each member serves a six-year tenure of office.[63][64]

Currently, the PLM Board of Regents is composed of former Supreme Court Justice Justo P. Torres, as Chairman, Alfred G. Gabot, as Vice-Chairman, Atty. Adel Tamano, Atty. Jose M. Roy III, Ambassador Raul I. Goco, Mr. Alfred G. Gabot, Atty. Aguinaldo L. Miravalles, as members, and Dr. Maria Luisa S. Quiñones, as ex-officio member.


The President of the PLM, who is at the same time member of the PLM Board of Regents, is appointed on single six-year tenure of office by the Mayor of the City of Manila, with consent from the City Council.[11][64]

On August 09, 2007, Atty. Adel A. Tamano has assumed the presidency after Dr. Benjamin G. Tayabas stepped down through early retirement.[4] His appointment, which was formally ratified on January 31, 2008,[65] makes him the first Muslim president of a university outside Muslim Mindanao[66] as well as the University's youngest present.[2]

See also: The Investiture of Adel Tamano


Gusaling Don Pepe Atienza, the graduate school building of PLM along Muralla Street.


The history of PLM’s conception started during the administration of the late Mayor Arsenio H. Lacson when he approved Ordinance No. 4202 on January 13, 1960 which appropriated PhP 1 million for the construction of the university.[67] It was, however, never implemented until his death and the assumption of his successor, Mayor Antonio de Jesus Villegas.[8][46]

On February 13, 1963, Mayor Villegas, dubbed as the "Father of Completely Free Education in RP" issued Executive Order No. 7 s-1963, creating a Planning and Working Committee to draw up a plan to establish a city university.[8][46] The committee was chaired by Dr. Benito F. Reyes[8][46] and the members were Gabriel Formoso, Leoncio Monzon, Alfredo Morales, Vicente Albano Pacis, Jose S. Roldan, Carlos Moran Sison, with Atty. Primitivo de Leon as its secretary.

Due to an impasse impending the legislature action of the city council to formally create the university, Mayor Villegas interceded for the help of then-Congresman Justo Albert of the fourth congressional district of the City of Manila to sponsor a bill in the Congress seeking to create the university which was passed by the House of Representative in 1964 as House Bill No. 8349.[68] The Senate version of the bill was spearheaded by Senators Gil Puyat and Camilo Osias, which was passed by the Philippine Senate in 1965. The consolidation of the two bills was tackled during the Fourth session of the Fifth Congress of the Philippines, which began and was held in the City of Manila on January 25, 1965. The consolidated bill was thereafter passed by the joint Congress and was signed by Senate President Ferdinand E. Marcos and House Speaker Cornelio T. Villareal with Mr. Regino S. Eustaquio, Secretary of the Senate, and Mr. Inocencio B. Pareja, Secretary of the House of Representatives.

Coindicentally, during José Rizal's birth anniversity on June 19, 1965,[2] the final bill entitled An Act Authorizing the City of Manila to Establish and Operate the University of the City of Manila and for Other Purposes,[64] was signed into law by President Diosdado P. Macapagal, in a signing ceremony in Malacañan Palace. The event was witnessed by Mayor Villegas, Congressman Ramon Mitra, Jr., Atty. Primitivo de Leon, and its main sponsor in the House of Representatives, Congresman Justo Albert. The Law was captioned as Republic Act No. 4196[64], which now serves as the University Charter.[15][68]

The Board of Regents, which is the governing body of the University, was formally organized in the same year as Mayor Villegas appointed the member thereof, The university regents were sworn into office during the historic day of January 09, 1967, and they eventually conducted its election of officers on February 23, 1967. The composition of the first Board of Regents were: Atty. Carlos Moran Sison, Chairman, Dr. Benito F. Reyes, Vice Chairman, Emilio Abello, Roman F. Lorenzo, Jose S. Roldan and Primo L. Tongko, members; Fructuoso R. Yanson served as an ex-officio member and Jose F. Sugay as its secretary. Dr. Benito F. Reyes was chosen as the PLM’s first president.[8][46]

PLM opened as a University College on July 17, 1967 to 556 freshman scholars, all coming from the top ten percent of the graduating class of Manila's then 29 public high schools.[7][15] A year later, the university established a Graduate College and followed by the Institute of Extra-Mural Studies, which is the archetype of the present-day PLM District Colleges.

In 1997, the reorganization at PLM paved the way for the establishment of the Division of Community Health Services (DCHS), offering distance learning programs to qualified midwives and paramedical workers in coordination with the Integrated Midwives Association of the Philippines (IMAP) and its regional networks nationwide.[24] The DCHS is now a vital component of the PLM Open University.

Recent developmentBaguhin

Growth and expansionBaguhin

During the 21st century, the PLM emerged onto the national academic stage, and for the first time, admitted students from outside of Manila. Many changes took place that eventually ushered in a new era for the university.

This period saw a surge in funds devoted for the university’s physical development. Many new facilities were built at the main campus, and the different departments, colleges and schools were restructured. The university fortified its research capabilities by establishing a number of research units and consortium agreements with other institutions to guide its academic research initiatives.

In 2000, the launching of Pamantasang Limbagan ng Maynila (PLM University Press), inauguration of the Development Center for Women Studies and Services, and the revival of the Manila Studies program under the new Sentro ng Araling Manileno were among the highlights.[67]

From 2001-2003, the PLM Board of Regents aggressively expanded the PLM curriculum to include professional studies in tourism, hotel and travel industry management, and physical education and recreational sports,[69] as well as, to support the separation of the Department of Architecture from the PLM College of Engineering & Technology; dissection of the colleges of Arts and Sciences, and Business Administration into new colleges - PLM College of Mass Communication, PLM College of Science, PLM College of Liberal Arts, PLM College of Accountancy & Economics, and PLM College of Management & Entrepreneurship;[69][70] and, merger of the departments of social work, education and psychology into the PLM College of Human Development.[70][71]

In 2001, Mayor Lito Atienza authorized the opening of three district colleges under the city government's university system.[20][72] In about the same time, the integrated learning center for toddlers commenced through the initiative of the Center for University Extension Services (CUES).[73] A year later, the PLM Open University increased its off-campus and distance learning programs to more qualified individuals throughout the country wishing to pursue higher education. Likewise, it installed a general education curriculum and visiting professors agreement with its sister-schools in Saudi Arabia and Thailand to allow Overseas Filipinos to pursue their college education. [22][74][23]

Campaign for Student RegencyBaguhin

In 2001, the Supreme Student Council (SSC), the university’s student governing body, led the campaign for the student representation at the PLM Board of Regents, and made the PLM community cognizant of the issue.[75] Senator Francis Pangilinan, on January 15, 2002, filed the Senate Bill No. 1967 or an act amending certain provisions of Republic Act No. 4196. The bill seeks the installation of student representation in the Board of Regents, and Senator Pangilinan perceives it as an imperative step in furthering the role of the youth in nation building.[76]

English Proficiency ProgramBaguhin

In July 2004, Mayor Lito Atienza spearheaded the development and implementation of the English Proficiency Program in all schools being funded by the city government. A committee on the use of English was formed a week after the directive was passed, and it was headed by the then PLM President Benjamin G. Tayabas. Aside from Tayabas, the other members of the committee were City Administrators Dino Nable, Secretary to the Mayor Emmanuel Sison, Chief of Staff Pia Sacro, Division of City Schools-Manila Superintendent Ma. Luisa S. Quiñones, City College of Manila President Rodrigo Malunhao and Eulogio "Amang" Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology President Maura Bautista.[17] A few weeks later, the English as a Second Language (ESL) Center was established at the PLM [77] before the program's full implementation on September 01.[78] Initially, the campaign was derided by some critics and groups,[79][80] but later lauded and even followed by other institutions.[80][81][82] Two years after the birthing pains of the program at the PLM, The American Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines and the European Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines has taken part in a massive, intensive English retooling effort among private and government schools in partnership with the Department of Education.[83]

Redefining the futureBaguhin

In 2007, the President Ramon Magsaysay Entrepreneurial Center, and the PLM Activity Center[84] were built. In addition, PLM commissioned the G & W Architects to design two new buildings at the PLM Main Campus namely, the Gusaling Intramuros, the new building for the PLM College of Architecture & Urban Planning and the PLM University Press, facing the General Luna Street; and, the Bahay Manila (PLM Community and Alumni center), situated beside the Gusaling Arsenio Lacson along Victoria Street. A year later, PLM allocated PhP 2-3 million for the establishment of a restaurant near the Baluarte de San Diego Gardens, which is to be operated by the PLM College of Tourism, Hotel & Travel Industry Management. There is also a proposal of setting up a hotel in a property owned by the city government.[42]

The main campus continued thorough refurbishing of its existing facilities like the repair of the school gymnasium, the creation of a faculty lounge, a health and wellness center,[85] a first-rate cafeteria, and air-conditioned classrooms.[86]

Through the leadership of Atty. Adel Tamano, the administration aggressively pursued its allocation for book acquisition to beef up the collection of PLM libraries,[47] and alloted PhP 5 million to purchase new books for 2008 alone.[2] Aside from improving the physical environment and setup, he also revolutionized some of the existing policies and instituted reforms at the PLM, such as the implementing of stricter admission and retention policy, providing of tenures of office for deans of each school,[2][42] upgrading of the wage and non-wage benefits of employees,[8][46][2] and enforcing of zero tolerance on corruption,[32][86] such as placing measures that would keep bidding and contract-awarding transparent and open to scrutiny.[2][86] During his investiture, he vowed to bring PLM to greater heights of academic excellence.[87]

On June 28, 2008, a fire destroyed a stockroom at the PLM Main Campus near the Ilustrado restaurant at 11:17 a.m., and reached fifth alarm before it was put out 11:48 a.m. No casualty was reported, and classes went back to normal the following week.[88][89]

The front gates on both sides of Muralla and General Luna Streets are now flung open and allow entrants a semblance of a free way to the lobby of the main building Gusaling Villegas where the security guards are stationed for the usual check,[47] and provide a better view of the university's iconography - the flaming torch.[8][46]

Geographical HistoryBaguhin

PLM Chapel

The site where the PLM Main Campus is situated used to be occupied by the Colegio de Manila (also known as Colegio Seminario de San Ignacio), which was founded in 1590 by Fr. Antonio Sedeño, S.J. [68][90][91] The Colegio de Manila formally opened in 1595, and was the first school in the Philippines.[92] (Note: This institution is not the PLM today).

Aside from Colegio de Manila, there were other structures that were built in the site. Iglesia de Santa Ana, the first stone church in the Philippines, was built in 1590 and opened in 1596. However, an earthquake destroyed it, and another church was built in honor of San Ignacio de Loyola (St. Ignatius of Loyola) in 1626.[93]

In 1601, the Colegio de San José was set up as an annex of Colegio Seminario de San Ignacio.[68] Twenty years later, Pope Gregory XV, through the Archbishop of Manila, authorized the Colegio Seminario de San Ignacio to confer degrees in theology and arts and elevated it into a university.[94] In 1623, Philip IV of Spain confirmed the authorization, making the school both a pontifical and a royal university, and the very first university in the Philippines and in Asia.[90][95][96][97][94] In 1722, the Colegio de San José was granted royal patronage.[94]

In 1768, the Jesuits surrendered the Universidad Maximo de San Ignacio to the Spanish authorities after their suppression and expulsion from Spain and its territories.[90][91][94] Later, the Universidad Maximo de San Ignacio was placed under secular administration and converted into a seminary and a liberal arts college. In 1773, Pope Clement XIV formally declared the dissolution of the Society of Jesus. In 1895, the Universidad Maximo de San Ignacio merged with the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of the University of Santo Tomas. The Colegio de San José is now the San José Major Seminary at the Ateneo de Manila University.

The buildings of what was the Universidad Maximo de San Ignacio were transformed into military headquarters called Cuartel del Rey,[68] which eventually became known as Cuartel de España. José Rizal was placed on trial for sedition here on December 26, 1896.[2][68]

During the American occupation, part of the barracks was razed, and a gymnasium was built on it.[68] In early 1930s, one of first games of the NCAA was played in the 31st Infantry Quonset Gym.[98] The buildings and the whole premises served as military headquarters for the 31st Infantry of the United States Army until 1941[68] During World War II, General Douglas McArthur held command post here,[99] but the entire area was later destroyed by the on-going military conflict.[68]

In early 1960s, the site was rehabilitated by the city government and a building was constructed at General Luna Street to house the students of Manila High School.[99] However, on April 24, 1965, the late President Diosdado Macapagal issued Proclamation 392-A, giving to the proposed city university the three-hectare lot being occupied by Manila High School.[27] On February 26, 1967, the new complex along Victoria Street was inaugurated, and the students of Manila High School was transferred there.[99] And, finally, on July 17, 1967, the first batch of PLM scholars began its academic pursuits in the site where the very roots of the modern educational system in the Philippines may be found.

Traditions, insignia and other representationsBaguhin

The Pamantasan nameBaguhin

The word and name Pamantasan, a name more contextually significant than its English equivalent, was derived from the Filipino word, pantás, which means "wise man". It is considered as the Filipino term for University.[100] PLM is the first educational institution to have used the term as part of its official name.[7]


The Great Seal of the PLM depicts a sunbeam, which is a design comprising a central disk with fourteen radiating spires that represent the geographical districts of Manila - Binondo, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa, Tondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, San Andres Bukid and Santa Ana. The central disk is divided into four equal parts. The latter's upper half is red on the right and white on the left, while the lower half is blue on the right and white on the left.

Some of the elements present in the University Seal Left to right: the old Tagala text, the bud of the nilad plant, the scroll, the atom, and the torch.

Superimposed on the central disk of the sunbeam are the following:

  • The ancient sunburst that represents truth and light
  • The bud of the "nilad" plant, from which the name of the City of Manila originated
  • The old Tagala text and the scroll that represents wisdom and culture
  • The torch that represents knowledge
  • The atom that represents technological advancement


PLM flag

The PLM flag is a horizontal tricolor of yellow, red and blue. The yellow stripe takes the top and the bottom quarters of the flag and the red takes up half of the space at the middle where the Great Seal of the PLM appears. The flag is usually seen during the Parade of Colors along with the Philippine Flag in official events and special occasions.

PLM Flag Web color
Color Name English (Tagalog) HTML code
Flag Red (Watawat - Pula) #FF0000
Flag Yellow (Watawat - Dilaw) #FFFF00
Flag Blue(Watawat - Bughaw) #0000FF



Padron:PLM Colors


Being a multidisciplinary school, PLM utilizes a semester-based modular system for conducting courses, adopts features of the American system (credits), and offers 53 single-degree undergraduate and 49 masters, doctoral and graduate diploma programs conducted by its 25 degree-granting colleges and graduate schools in its three academic divisions.[8][46][101]

The academic year of PLM is divided into two semesters, each composed of four and a half months of instruction. The university requires a minimum of twelve units to be considered a full-time student, with the maximum being twenty units. The average PLM undergraduate takes 4 courses, or sixteen units. Summer courses are offered in selected courses only.[102]

PLM employs the General Weighted Average (GWA) system and a 1.00 to 5.00 grading scale, with 1.00 being the highest possible grade for a particular undergraduate course. At the graduate level, the Pass/Fail system generally applies.


The PLM curricula, from the licensure programs to minimum course requirements, are based from the prescribed curriculum of the Commission on Higher Education, but the PLM exercises full autonomy to alter its own curricula.[35]

The different academic divisions offer degree programs based on the curricula proposed by the PLM faculty. Consultations with the business or industry engaged in the particular field or study are also sought. The participative involvement of practitioners in the formation of the courses of study is reflected in skills-oriented, community-directed and value-driven curricular programs of PLM.[102] In 2004, the University's Medium-Term Development Plan mainstreamed into the PLM education system some innovative programs and best practices as articulated in the academic programs that are market-based and responsive to the industry needs.[7][16]

During the first year of college work, students at the Undergraduate schools receive a general education program from the College of Liberal Arts. On April 15, 2005, the 68-unit PLM General Education Program (GEP) was revised. Now, it consists of English, Filipino, Social Sciences and Humanities, Philosophy and Ethics, Sciences, Mathematics, and Personal Financial Management.[103] Other management courses have also been integrated with emphasis on ethics to ensure that PLM graduates are steep with sound values and adhere to the highest ethical standards necessary in their chosen careers.[103]

The students are also required to attend four Physical Education classes, and a choice from among Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) or Civil Welfare Training Service (CWTS) in the Department of Military Science & Tactics and the National Service Training Corps. The PLM ROTC Unit has been consistently hailed by National Capital Region-Regional Community Defense Group as one of the most outstanding ROTC units in the Philippines.[104]


Each academic division at PLM has its own admission policy and retention criteria for prospective students. Admission to one academic division does not guarantee admission to another. Except for the Professional schools, Graduate schools and Open University, all students should satisfy specific proof of Manila residency, or other supporting documents to secure eligibility to take the PLM Admission Test as required by the Undergraduate schools.

In order to ensure one's admission to a specific degree program, a student's overall grade on the first year of college work, or the cumulative grade point average on all previous college work attempted, should fall within the prescribed GWA of the particular college or school to which the student intends to apply. Once admitted at a particular college or school, the student is expected to achieve the required GWA to ensure retention in the degree program. Academic screening continues from admission until graduation.

Undergraduate schools AdmissionBaguhin

PLM receives thousands of applications from all over the Philippines every year. Graduates or senior students of the Division of City Schools-Manila and private high schools recognized by the Department of Education results may be admitted as freshmen to PLM based on the following:

  • General Weighted Average (GWA) obtained in the Fourth Year Level in High School of 85% or its equivalent
  • Performance in the PLM Admission Test (PLMAT)

In the previous years, an applicant for admission could either be a Manila resident, Manila-born, or both except for high school students from other cities and provinces who belong to the upper 4% of the graduating class.[8][46] In 2005, only high school graduates who were Manila residents had been allowed to take the PLMAT, and honor students (Valedictorian, Salutatorian, First to Third Honorable Mentions) who were graduates of Manila public high schools were automatically qualified for admission.[105] At present, PLM has permitted honor students from schools outside of Manila to take the PLMAT.[2]

For the school year 2006-2007, the acceptance rate of the PLM Main Campus is mere 3 percent; it admitted 2,000 high school graduates, who met the cut-off scores required by the college in which they applied for, out of 5,000 pre-selected applicants,[8] from more than 40,000 college applications nationwide.[26]

In the recent years, there has been a decrease in the number of students from low-income families that pass the PLMAT and an increase in the number of students from middle-income families that enroll at the PLM. Because of this, the administration carried out the "PLM Big Brother" project, which aims to provide review classes to graduating high-school students who come from the poor families in Manila and enable them to be on equal footing with students coming from middle-income families, who normally perform better in the PLMAT. This is also a way of upholding the university's life purpose and mission.[8][32]

The student's academic performance in the General Education Program (GEP) is the basis for his acceptance to the specific college where the degree is offered.

Professional and Graduate schools AdmissionBaguhin

Each professional and graduate school has its own specified guidelines and criteria for admission. Most professional and graduate schools require a standardized exam for admission; however, the PLM College of Medicine, also require additional exams like NMAT, while other schools, including the PLM College of Law and PLM Graduate School of Health Sciences, have a set of proficiency exams that cover the material in a discipline as well as measure the English language capability of the applicant. Other criteria for admission generally include the transcript of records, overall GWA of previous college work, as well as undergraduate background of at least 12 units in the area of the professional or graduate degree. Most schools also require applicants to submit an admission essay, a recommendation from at least one college or immediate superior with whom the applicant studied or worked, regarding the applicant's academic or professional abilities and character.


The scholarship entitles the student to free tuition fee for non-paying students (students who are either Manila-born or Manila-resident) and partial to minimum tuition-fees for paying students (students from other cities and provinces) until completion of a college degree. Minimal fees are charged for other services such as library facilities, student publications, student services, and physical education facilities.[102] Non-profit organizations accredited by the Office of Student Affairs have also made other forms of scholarships available for PLM students.[106]

Retention policyBaguhin

On October 21, 2005, the revised retention policy per Board of Regents' Administrative Order No. 19, which requires freshmen to maintain a GWA of 2.25 and a grade of 2.50 in the higher years on a semestral basis to attain a Good Standing (GS) status, initially took effect at PLM. According to the new guidelines, students who fall short of the required GWA are now allowed to shift to another academic program at PLM that has lower retention criteria and will not lose their non-paying status. The Warning status was removed and students who fail to meet the criteria of GS are automatically given the Probationary status. Probationary students may regain their GS status immediately after a semester of satisfactory performance.[107] If a probationary student flanks a certain subject or has incurred a GWA that is below the acceptable standards required by the academic program or college, he is instantly subjected for expulsion, and is given the option for transfer to another university.

Every college has imposed its own retention criteria. For instance, in the PLM College of Accountancy & Economics, a GWA of 2.00 must be maintained without failing grades in all major subjects. In the PLM College of Mass Communication, students must maintain an average of 2.25 or better without failing grades in all major subjects or must not have more than two major subjects with grades of 3.00 or a combination of 2.75 and 3.00. Psychology students must maintain a mark of 2.50 in all psychology subjects and 2.00 in English or major subjects for Bachelor of Science in Tourism, Hotel and Travel Industry Management. In the case of the PLM College of Nursing, students with a GWA of 1.75 or better but with failing grades are considered disqualified from the said program.[107]

Any student may shift from one college to another during the second semester but must satisfy the specific criteria of the degree program and be able to finish the program within the prescribed time frame.

In the previous years, students who failed to meet the PLM standards were given reconsiderations to be readmitted in the University. However, this practice is no longer permitted under the current academic policy so as not to compromise PLM's status as one of the country's top universities.[28][42][43]


Enrollment schemeBaguhin

1967:   556
2003: 13,028
2004: 12,130
2006: 11,069
2007: 13,711

PLM has a three-step enrollment scheme:

  • college advising process - this is conducted at least a day prior to the scheduled enrollment day; the grades of the student are assessed to determine whether that student falls into the paying or non-paying status
  • enlistment process - the student is given the enrollment stub to be presented to the Cashier
  • payment process - the enrollment stub is presented to the Cashier for payment of the required amount and/or the Student's Enrollment Assessment Form are printed by the Registrar's Computer Services

Student enrollmentBaguhin

For the last three years, there has been a gradual decrease of student enrollment at the PLM Main Campus. This has been ascribed to the University's student selectivity and retention policy.[108] In the first semester of 2003, there were 13,028 students at the undergraduate levels (the Undergraduate schools and the Professional schools combined). This number decreased to 12,130 students a year later. In the last semester of 2005, student enrollment further decreased by 9.76 percent. For the first semester of 2006, only 11,069 students remained and 2,104 freshmen students admitted. During the same period, PLM was the 10th largest university in terms of student population in Metro Manila.[109]


Persons affiliated with the PLM, either as students, faculty members, or administrators, are known as PLMayers.[102][110]

Some notable PLM alumni include Michael V., a multi-awarded comedian, recording artist and multimedia endorser; Adolfo Alix, Jr., a prolific director and screenwriter; Wilma Galvante, the Senior Vice-President for Entertaiment of GMA 7; Manuel Buising, an internationally acclaimed columnist and Carlos Palanca Awards Hall of Famer; Panfilo Lacson, a Philippine Senator; Liliosa Hilao, a distinguished student-leader and martyr during the Marcos dictatorship, among others. Arturo Pacheco Reyes, A retired Senior Chief from the United States Navy, and a candidate for U.S. Senate, U.S. Congress, Governor of the State of Hawaii, among others and winning honors in the Marquis Foundation for Who's Who in America; and Who's Who in The World, made his marks in transforming the architectural landscaping of America's demographics when he uprooted his family of over a hundred strong and brought them to the United States of America during the 1980's. Along came his siblings who were also PLM players: Marcelo Pacheco Reyesa consistent "cum laude" in his own right from Police Science Class of 1971 and 1972, and Ester Pacheco Reyes a 1971 alumnus who made PLM history with her two other siblings when all three of them siblings graduated on the eve of 27th April 1971 Commencement Exercises.

Student lifeBaguhin

Students of the PLM have access to a variety of activities while not attending class. The campus' proximity to several attractions in Manila makes excursions to local museums, theaters, or other entertainment venues relatively quick and easy.[111]

The PLM Main Campus offers intramural sports, cultural shows, 390 free Internet stations,[87] wireless fidelity facilities,[85] and over 50 student and employee organizations. Fraternities and sororities play a role in the university's social life. Youth for Christ and Bible Readers' Society are some of the well-known religious groups. There are also engineering projects teams, including the Microcontrollers and Robotics Society, which have earned a number of recognition in national-level competitions, and debate teams,[112] such as the Speech and Debate Society and the Economics Society. The university also showcases many community service organizations and charitable projects, including the PLM Samaritans, the Brotherhood of Medical Scholars, Legal Aid and Youth Advocacy (LAYA), among others.

The University sponsors and implements a comprehensive student services program coordinated by the Office of Student Affairs. The President's Committee on Arts and Culture (PCAC) is responsible for building up the artistry and craft of the PLM students through its different cultural organizations, such as the Hiyas ng Maynilad Dance Troupe, PLM Rondalla, PLM Chorale, and the Mabuhay Marching Band. Magwayen Creative Scholars' Guild is the pioneer theater arts group of PLM created in 1998.

PLM Activity Center

The PLM Activity Center is a venue for many events. Homecoming coincides with various festivities to draw past students back to campus. The University hosts notable speakers each year, largely because of the success of the President Ramon Magsaysay School of Public Governance Lecture Series[113] and the Ramon Magsaysay Awardees' Lecture Series. These are frequently Ramon Magsaysay Awardees who visit PLM while in the capital, as well as, scholars, politicians, authors, and religious leaders.[5] Different organizations, clubs, and research units host numerous symposia and fora on various issues and topics. Concerts and variety shows are commonly held at the PLM Grandstand and Open Field as well as in the Justo Albert Auditorium. In the middle of 2008, the university grounds became a music hall and camp for the participants to the Opusfest, the international piano and chamber music festival. Master classes with interactive performances conducted by international concert artists were open to the PLM community.[8][114]

The student government at PLM is the Supreme Student Council (SSC), governed by a student elected as president. Aside from the SSC, which acts as the central student government body within the PLM, there are college-based student councils as well. There are only 2 university-wide student political parties, namely Bukluran Party and Partidong Tugon, that annually participate in the student council elections. Tracing its roots from the former Sandigan Party, Bukluran was founded in 1995, while Tugon started in 1991.

A longstanding goal of some members of the student government and political parties is to create a student designated seat on the Board of Regents, the university's governing body. Such a designation would achieve parity with other State Universities that have student regents.[76]


In 1979, seven years after its predecessor HASIK was padlocked following the declaration of Martial Law, Ang Pamantasan, the PLM's official university-wide student publication, was born. Through the years, the publication has faced censorship but it has stood up well for campus press freedom and continued to serve as watchdog of the PLM community.[115]

There are also several administrative, university-wide, and college-based publications and academic journals being circulated at PLM. These include:

Administrative publicationsBaguhin

  • The Pamantasan StarPost, the official publication of the PLM administration
  • The PLM Journal, a 60-page quarterly magazine that highlights the achievements of PLM for the general readership
  • Ospital ng Maynila Journal of Medicine, the official publication of the PLM-Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center administration

University-wide publicationsBaguhin

An edition of PLUMA, PLM's official student literary folio.
  • Ang Pamantarsan, the lampoon version of Ang Pamantasan
  • PLUMA, the official literary folio of the PLM students
  • The PLM Magazine, the special edition publication of Ang Pamantasan

College-based publicationsBaguhin

  • Ang Sinag, the official publication of the PLM College of Science
  • BUSINESS ACCESS, the official publication of the PLM College of Management and Entrepreneurship
  • CMC Beat, the official publication of the PLM College of Mass Communication
  • The Disclosure, the official publication of the PLM College of Accountancy and Economics
  • The Impression, the official publication of the PLM College of Physical Therapy
  • Praescriptio, the official publication of the PLM College of Medicine
  • TECHNik, the official publication of the PLM College of Engineering and Technology

Other publicationsBaguhin

  • Psynapse, the official publication of the PLM Department of Psychology
  • The Ledger, the official publication of the Junior Philippine Institute of Accountants-PLM Chapter

Student and Employee organizationsBaguhin

There are student and employee organizations that cater to specific communities in PLM. Unlisted organizations are in the process of being accredited. These include:


The PLM community regularly organizes inter-university invitational games and dual meets in major sporting events, participates in the Manila Youth Games[116] and Manila Marathon,[117] and conducts its very own Student Intramural Games that is participated in by more than 10 college teams of the PLM Main Campus.

The University is a member of Alculympics, a sports organization composed of 18 local colleges and universities nationwide.[118][119] Volleyball, basketball, table tennis, taekwondo, arnis, and track & field are among the featured sports in the said competition.[120]

Due to the high cost of membership for the University Athletic Association of the Philippines, joining the said league has never been a priority of the PLM administration.[121]

Memberships in organizationsBaguhin



PLM currently holds the Secretariat of the Career Development Association of the Philippines (CDAP);[102] while, its University President, Atty. Adel A. Tamano, serves as the President of the Association of Local Colleges and Universities (ALCU).[122]

PLM is an active member of other national academic organizations. These include:

  • Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines, Inc. (AACCUP)
  • Association of Philippine Colleges of Arts and Sciences (APCAS)
  • Association of Philippine Medical Colleges (APMC)
  • Association of Schools of Public Administration in the Philippines (ASPAP)
  • Ermita Health Science Community-Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (EHSC-PCRD)
  • Manila Studies Association (MSA)
  • Philippine Alumni Council (PAC)
  • Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities (PACU)
  • Philippine Association of Graduate Education (PAGE)
  • Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC)
  • Philippine Association of Technological Education (PATE)[123]
  • Philippine Social Science Council, Inc. (PSSCI)
  • Philippine State Universities and Colleges Computer Educationists Society (PSUCCESS)
  • Schools of Social Work Association of the Philippines (SSWAP)



On November 28, 2006, a memorandum of understanding between the PLM and the City College of San Francisco was renewed. Both schools are committed to undertake a student and teacher exchange program, joint curricula, and plans for a City College extension within the PLM grounds.[124][125][126]

On July 07, 2008, Goli Ameri, US Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, said in an address to PLM students that the US government have tried to provide opportunities to less-privileged but talented students through its English Access Scholarship Program, Undergraduate Summer Program, Youth Exchange and Study Program, and Global Undergraduate Program.[127][128]

Apart from the US student exchange programs and scholarships and partnership with the City College of San Francisco, PLM maintains international cooperation with other reputable schools in the world.[102] These include:


PLM is part of the establishment of consortium agreements with other three major educational institutions in the Intramuros district such as the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, the Lyceum of the Philippines University, and the Mapúa Institute of Technology in 2002.[129] This consortium has made exchange programs of students and faculty between the different schools, as well as the sharing of specializations, possible. Apart from the Intramuros Consortium, the PLM has linkages with the member schools under the Association of Local Colleges and Universities as well as with other Philippine educational institutions.[102] These include:


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Anilao, Emmanuel S. D. (2006-06-17). "Partnership in PLM, the Third Time Around". The Manila Times. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006-07-17. Nakuha noong 2007-03-21. Our motto is ‘Benchmarking the New Filipino University’, which is in line with the Buhayin ang Maynila program, Dr. Benjamin G. Tayabas explained. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 Linda, Bolido.On hallowed ground. "The Philippine Daily Inquirer". December 29, 2008. Maling banggit (Invalid na <ref> tag; maraming beses na binigyang-kahulugan ang pangalang "excellence" na may iba't ibang nilalaman); $2
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Atienza says Health Services Remain Priority of City Hall". The Manila Bulletin Online. 2007-04-15. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2007-04-15. Nakuha noong 2007-09-10. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Tamano, Adel A. (2007-08-13). "Minority Report: Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila". The Manila Times Internet Edition. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2007-08-13. Nakuha noong 2007-08-13. Last Thursday, I was appointed by the Board of Regents of PLM as University President. PLM is a unique learning institution. With over ten thousand students, faculty, and staff, the challenge of running the university might seem daunting. But its uniqueness, that it is essentially an honors school where only the students from lower income families with excellent scholastic records are admitted, appeals to my sense of leadership and education so much that any doubts or worries that I might have are overcome. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Del Mundo, Ida Anita Q. Raising Manila's Next Generation of Rajahs. The Philippine Star. June 22, 2008.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila ASAIHL member page". The Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning. 2006. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006. Nakuha noong 2007-03-11. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong) Maling banggit (Invalid na <ref> tag; maraming beses na binigyang-kahulugan ang pangalang "asaihl" na may iba't ibang nilalaman); $2
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 Marlon Miguel G. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila celebrates 39th founding anniversary. "Manila Bulletin Online". June 15, 2004. Maling banggit (Invalid na <ref> tag; maraming beses na binigyang-kahulugan ang pangalang "mbo_01" na may iba't ibang nilalaman); $2
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 Youth & Campus: Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. "The Manila Bulletin Online". September 08, 2009.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Pascual, Federico Jr. D.Have all ‘nuisance’ bets file test suits before SC. The Philippine Star. February 05, 2004.
  10. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila 39th Anniversary. "The Manila Bulletin Online". June 19, 2004.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Executive Summary of the 1999 Annual Audit Report on the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. The Commission on Audit Official Website. 1999.
  12. Maghirang, Tony. "First! Best! Most! The Philippine Daily Inquirer. June 24, 2007.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Pascual, Federico Jr. D. Coming in with Too Little Too Late in Solving Crisis. "The Philippine Star". June 06, 2006.
  14. Gabelo, Nerisa C. (2006-06-25). "The City of Manila's Goal is the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila's Commitment". The Philippine Panorama. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006-06-25. Nakuha noong 2007-03-21. As a testament to it, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) has publicly commended and recognized PLM for its unprecedented track record and remarkable achievements. Given the recognition as the Model University worth emulating by all locally-funded institutions of higher learning, the PLM is in pursuit of a legend in quality higher education. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 "Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Pamantasan 41st Founding Anniversary". The Manila Bulletin Online. 2006-06-19. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006-06-19. Nakuha noong 2006-12-25. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) has cited PLM as a Center of Excellence for its track record as a model university for all locally supported institutions of tertiary learning to emulate. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 "Soaring high and leaving footprints in pursuit of a legend in quality higher education". The Manila Bulletin Online. 2004-06-15. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2004-06-15. Nakuha noong 2006-12-25. We are very proud of our track record in licensure examinations, having been ranked among top schools in the country today based on a CHED four-year study of colleges and universities fielding candidates for PRC board examinations, PLM president Benjamin G. Tayabas claims. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 "Manila committee on use of English in schools reveals initial measures". The Manila Bulletin Online. 2004-07-19. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2004-07-19. Nakuha noong 2006-12-25. The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila is now ranked number five nationwide and its graduates are now competing with the products of top schools such as the University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University and the De La Salle University, said Atienza. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  18. Pascual, Federico Jr. D.Tough battle for foes of PNCC compromise. "The Philippine Star". June 05, 2007.
  19. Villarosa, Maria Cecilia D. "PLM DC unraveled." Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXIII, No. 3. September 10, 2002.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Manila opening 3 new district colleges. The Manila Bulletin Online. April 23, 2001.
  21. Redo, Rizza Jane V. and Beraquit Marvel B. "Little Isko, housed." Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXII, No. 4. September 19, 2001.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Texting and Open Universities". The Manila Times Internet Edition. 2004-02-24. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2004-02-24. Nakuha noong 2007-03-11. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  23. 23.0 23.1 "Texting and Open Universities". ABS-CBN Interactive. 2004-02-24. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2004-02-24. Nakuha noong 2007-03-23. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  24. 24.0 24.1 History of Integrated Midwives Association of the Philippines. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  25. Nuñez, Dr. Domingo B. "PLM connects to Riyadh." Pamantasan StarPost, Vol. III, No. 2. September 2002.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 "A Quality Local University with A National Presence". The Manila Bulletin. 2006-07-31. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006-07-31. Nakuha noong 2007-03-21. More than its financial support that translates to an annual allocation of no less than P210 million, the city government continues to be responsive to the physical development needs of the university. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong) Maling banggit (Invalid na <ref> tag; maraming beses na binigyang-kahulugan ang pangalang "city_of_manila_mb_01" na may iba't ibang nilalaman); $2
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Atencio, Joel C.Arroyo leads Pamantasan rites today. "The Manila Bulletin Online". November 07, 2001.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Dela Peña, Shiela and San Juan, Jayson Edward (2008-03-27). "Adel Tamano's Bright Star". The Lobbyist. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2008-03-27. Nakuha noong 2008-07-25. I was asked by a reporter during my investiture, "How are you going to address that problem of lack funds of PLM?" I answered, "I dispute that, PLM has so much money. If you do not steal the money of this University, there’s so much money." I’ll give you another example. Here at PLM, we’re doing quite well. Our passing rate for example in Medicine in February 2007 is 100 percent. Our PRC rating in Accountancy is number two. Architecture, number two. Nursing number, three. Now, we’re doing well because Manila is spending a lot of money for the PLM students. It’s a tuition-free institution. Manila spends about four to five times the national average per student here. And that’s why we’re doing well. PLM should be like a showcase. That’s if the money is handled properly. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: multiple names: listahan ng mga may-akda (link)
  29. Boniquit, Celeste J. "PLM Budget Up by 100M." Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXIII, No. 3. April 01, 2003.
  30. Olea, Ronalyn V. Manila Campus Paper Padlocked Bulatlat No. IV, No. 21. July 27, 2004.
  31. Lontayao, Rommel C. (2008-03-27). "Two Manila schools get P50-M fund boost". The Manila Times. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2008-03-27. Nakuha noong 2008-03-27. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Lontaytao, Rommel C.PLM ‘big brother’ reaches out to poor students. The Manila Times Internet Edition. June 26, 2008.
  33. 33.0 33.1 PLM Supports Lim's Agenda. "The Manila Times Internet Edition". July 12, 2007.
  34. Antonio, Raymund F. Manila renews campaign to recover ‘crown jewels’. The Manila Bulletin Online. August 02, 2006.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Boniquit, Celeste J. and Macapagal, Ryan T. "PLM Autonomy in question over transparency." Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXIV, No. 3. August 2003. Maling banggit (Invalid na <ref> tag; maraming beses na binigyang-kahulugan ang pangalang "ap_01b" na may iba't ibang nilalaman); $2
  36. "GMA cites 'culture of excellence' at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila". Office of the President, Republic of the Philippines. 2003-04-12. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2003-04-12. Nakuha noong 2006-09-27. the President said that because of its culture of excellence, it is not easy for a student to go through college at the PLM. She said that only those who have excelled in high school are accepted at the Pamantasan, a university funded by the Manila city government. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  37. "GMA cites 'culture of excellence' at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila". The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines. April 12, 2003.
  38. Tamano, Adel A. (2007). "Investing in Education - The Gateway to National Development". Maranao Online. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2007. Nakuha noong 2008-08-05. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  39. Kenney, Kristie A. (2008-03-29). "Ambassador Kristie A. Kenney's Graduation Address to Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) 40th Commencement Exercises". Manila US Embassy Official Website. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2008-03-29. Nakuha noong 2008-08-05. Thanks to President Adel A. Tamano for his leadership and vision in making Pamantasan one of the top universities in the country... I congratulate Pamantasan for building a culture of commitment to public service in its students, faculty and alumni. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  40. Osorio, Emmanuel Libre (2008-06-26). "Manila: Heartland of Bangsamoro". Business Mirror Vol. III, No. 189. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2008-06-26. Nakuha noong 2008-08-16. The university, of course, is not the seat of political power; that rests in City Hall, just outside Intramuros. The university is the highest symbol of Manila’s public educational system which radiates another form of power and influence. In this wise, it would be best if the mayor allows the university president to take a leave of absence as spokesman of the opposition so he could lead the institution to new heights of excellence. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  41. Manila Board: Manila Education. Accessed January 19, 2009.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 Lontayao, Rommel C. Pamantasan wants to be top tourism school. "The Manila Times Internet Edition". January 28, 2008.
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Time to move on". The Manila Times Internet Edition. 2008-08-08. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2007-06-05. Nakuha noong 2008-08-08. Indeed, it is about time that the PLM should be insulated from city politics and its management left to professional administrators so as not to compromise its status as among the country’s top educational institutions. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  44. 44.0 44.1 Vanzi, Sol Jose. "Xavier University Cagayan beats UP in State Tests Average". Philippine Headline News Online.March 29, 2000.
  45. 45.0 45.1 "UP is no. 1 based on PRC exams". UP Newsletter, Vol. XXVIII, No. 09. September 01, 2007.
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  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 Youth and Campus: Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila. Accessed October 04, 2008.
  48. "PLM administration criticizes the THES-QS Survey." Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXVII No. 2. September 01, 2006.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Espina, Erik.Mayor Atienza and PLM. "Manila Bulletin Online". March 02, 2005.
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  51. FG Launches P20-M Medical Charity Project. The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines. June 22, 2006.
  52. Sytangco, Dedee. FG foundation fetes ‘Bagong Doktor’ scholars. The Manila Bulletin Online. June 03, 2008.
  53. Program continues even after GMA term — FG. June 05, 2007.
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  55. Jackson, Mary Vita. "Community-oriented Curriculum at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Nursing." Philippine Journal of Nursing. July 1977.
  56. Malayo, Natalie M. Lim scraps PLM ‘payback’ scheme. February 06, 2009.
  57. "MCB-ICOEC Tie-up on Outreach Mission". The Manila Cathedral website. 2006. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006. Nakuha noong 2007-08-27. ICOEC is composed of at least six schools in Intramuros, which consciously integrate in their curricular content the mission of service to the less fortunate. MCB’s collaboration with their efforts broadens the scope of outreach services they dispense because spiritual aspect will now be given an equal priority. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  58. Tugon-RESCUE. Accessed February 07, 2009.
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  60. Pontilar, Erlinda. Intramuros Consortium holds research confab. "Letran News". November 17, 2006.
  61. R&D Consortium in Metro Manila Established. The Department of Science and Technology Website. Accessed March 26, 2007.
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  66. Rasul, Amira and Gutoc, Samira Tamano’s appointment to PLM marks first for Filipino Muslims. The Manila Times Internet Edition. February 29, 2008.
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  71. Bernardo, Marie Kristine O., et.al. College of Human Dev’t, founded. Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXIII, No. 04. November 19, 2002.
  72. Soriano, Joralyn P. PLM District Colleges opened. Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXII, No. 01. June 07, 2001.
  73. Redo, Rizza Jane V. and Beraquit, Marvel B. Little Isko, housed. Ang Pamantasan, Vol. XXII, No. 04.
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  77. Viaje, Reden S. (2005-03-14). "Manila schools told: Step up English proficiency programs". The Manila Bulletin Online. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2005-03-14. Nakuha noong 2008-08-11. At the PLM, where the Manila English policy was first implemented last year, the training of the first batch of faculty and staff members was completed through the school's English as a Second Language (ESL) Center. These trainees now serve as facilitators in the ESL training for other teachers and students. "The ESL training is a great help to us, including those who are not English teachers but teach courses using the English language," PLM ESL Director Cherry Lynn Laguidao said. The ESL also conducted an image enhancement training for this year's graduating students on job interviews, resume writing, and test-taking linking to the school's annual jobs fair. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
  78. De Vera, Ellalyn B. and Lim, Ronald S. (2004-09-21). "The birthing pains of PLM's English Only Policy". The Manila Bulletin Online. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2004-09-21. Nakuha noong 2008-08-11. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: multiple names: listahan ng mga may-akda (link)
  79. "Stupid and Ironic". Piercing Pens blogsite. 2004. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2004. Nakuha noong 2008-08-11. We wonder if those pushing for the use of English in schools ever thought about how they complicate the process of learning by insisting on using a language that is foreign to both the students and the teachers. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
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  82. Conde, Carlos (2006-11-24). "Erosion of English Skills Threatens Growth in the Philippines". The New York Times. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006-11-24. Nakuha noong 2008-08-11. The Philippine Congress responded to those concerns last month by passing a law restoring English as the primary instruction language from high school onward. Local dialects can be used up to third grade, and from third grade to sixth grade English will be taught separately under the new law.The country’s Commission on Higher Education said it would put English-proficiency centers in hundreds of schools to teach these teachers. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
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  125. "City Hall News". The Examiner. 2006-11-29. Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2006-11-29. Nakuha noong 2007-03-11. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)
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