Halalang pampanguluhan sa Pilipinas, 2016

Ginanap noong 9 Mayo 2016, ikalawang Lunes ng buwan ng Mayo[1] ang isang halalang pampanguluhan ng Pilipinas. Ihahalal sa araw na ito ang ika-16 Pangulo ng Pilipinas na hahalili kay Benigno Aquino III, na hindi na maaaring tumakbo muli sa naturang katungkulan alinsunod sa Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas ng 1987. Ito ang ikalimang halalang sa pagkapangulo at pangalawang pangulo sa ilalim ng 1987 Saligang Batas.

Halalang pampanguluhan sa Pilipinas, 2016

← 2010 9 Mayo 2016 2022 →
Turnout80.69%
 
Candidate Rodrigo Duterte Mar Roxas Grace Poe
Party PDP-Laban Liberal Independent
Running mate Alan Peter Cayetano Leni Robredo Francis Escudero
Popular vote 16,601,997 9,978,175 9,100,991
Percentage 39.01% 22.18% 20.23%

 
Candidate Jejomar Binay Miriam Defensor Santiago
Party UNA PRP
Running mate Gregorio Honasan Bongbong Marcos
Popular vote 5,416,140 1,455,532
Percentage 15.04% 3.24%

Map showing the official results taken from provincial and city certificates of canvass. The inset shows Metro Manila.

President before election

Benigno Aquino III
Liberal

Elected President

Rodrigo Duterte
PDP-Laban

Inihayag ng Komisyon sa Halalan ang mga opisyal na kandidato sa pagka-Pangulo at Pangalawang Pangulo noong 15 Pebrero 2016. Ito'y makaraang suyurin ang 130 kandidatura sa pagka-Pangulo at 19 naman sa pagka-Pangalawang Pangulo.[2][3] Ang mga pinayagan ng Komisyon na tumakbo sa pagka-Pangulo ay sina Jejomar Binay ng United Nationalist Alliance, Miriam Defensor Santiago ng People's Reform Party, Rodrigo Duterte ng PDP–Laban, Grace Poe na isang independiyente, Mar Roxas ng Partido Liberal, at Roy Señeres ng Partido ng Manggagawa at Magsasaka.

Bago pa naisapinal ang listahan, na nabinbin ng dalawang buwan,[4] nauna nang iniatras ni Roy Señeres ang kaniyang kandidatura noong 5 Pebrero dahil sa kaniyang lumalalang kalusugan, na humantong naman kaniyang pagpanaw noong 8 Pebrero.[5][6] Sa kabila nito, hindi tinanggal ng Komisyon ang pangalan ni Señeres sa opisyal na balota, nang simulan itong ilimbag noong 15 Pebrero, dahil pinapayagan umano ng Omnibus Election Code na magpalit pa ng kandidato ang partido hanggang sa kalagitnaan ng araw ng halalan.[3][7]

Ibinasura naman ng Komisyon ang lahat ng petisyon na idiskuwalipika si Rodrigo Duterte noong 3 Pebrero.[8] Sa kabilang banda, ibinasura ng Komisyon ang kandidatura ni Grace Poe noong 23 Disyembre 2015,[9] ngunit dahil nakadulog ang kampo ni Poe sa Kataas-taasang Hukuman na naglabas ng TRO,[10] nanatili si Poe sa balota. Noong 8 Marso 2016, kinatigan ng Kataas-taasang Hukuman ang petisyon ni Poe laban sa Komisyon, at pinayagang tumakbo sa pagkapangulo.[11]

Mga opisyal na kandidato

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Pangulo

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Kandidato Partido Kamakailang Katungkulan Tirahan Edad sa
Halalan
 
Jejomar Binay
UNA Pangalawang Pangulo
ng Pilipinas
Makati 73
 
Miriam Defensor Santiago
PRP Senador Lungsod Quezon 70
 
Rodrigo Duterte
PDP–Laban Alkalde ng
Lungsod ng Davao
Lungsod Davao 71
 
Grace Poe
Independiyente Senador Lungsod Quezon 47
 
Mar Roxas
Liberal Kalihim ng Interyor
at Pamahalaang Lokal
Roxas, Capiz 58

Pangalawang Pangulo

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Kandidato Partido Kamakailang Katungkulan Tirahan Edad sa
halalan

Alan Peter Cayetano
Nacionalista Senador Taguig 45
 
Chiz Escudero
Independiyente Senador Sorsogon, Sorsogon 46
 
Gringo Honasan
UNA Senador Marikina 68
 
Bongbong Marcos
Nacionalista Senador Batac, Ilocos Norte 58
 
Leni Robredo
Liberal Kinatawan ng Ika-3 Distrito
ng Camarines Sur
Naga 51
 
Antonio Trillanes
Nacionalista Senador Caloocan 44

Debate

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Opisina Petsa Kaibigan Medya Lokasyon
Pangulo 21 Pebrero 2016 GMA Network at Philippine Daily Inquirer Mindanao Capitol University
20 Marso 2016 TV5, Philippine Star at BusinessWorld Visayas University of the Philippines Cebu College
24 Abril 2016 ABS-CBN at Manila Bulletin Luzon University of Pangasinan
Pangalawang Pangulo 10 Abril 2016 CNN Philippines, Rappler at Business Mirror Metro Manila University of Santo Tomas

Ang debateng ito, Harapan ng Bise, ay gaganapin sa ABS-CBN.[12]

Opisina Petsa Kaibigan Medya Lokasyon
Pangalawang Pangulo 17 Abril 2016 ABS-CBN Metro Manila Lungsod Quezon ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center

Mga talaan ng opinyon

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Pangulo

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Opinion polling in the presidential election using three-survey moving average.                      Jejomar Binay                      Miriam Defensor Santiago                      Rodrigo Duterte                      Grace Poe                      Mar Roxas                      Others                      None/undecided
Date(s) conducted Pollster Sample
size
Margin of
error
Binay
(UNA)
Defensor
Santiago

(PRP)
Duterte
(PDP-Laban)
Poe
(Ind.)
Roxas
(LP)
Undecided
None
Other
Jan 8–10 SWS[13] 1,800 ±2.0% 31 3 20 24 21 2
Jan 19 First round of oral arguments of Grace Poe's petition to the Supreme Court to overturn the disqualification against her candidacy
Jan 24–28 Pulse Asia[14] 1,200 ±3.0% 23 4 20 30 20 3
Jan 27–Feb 4 Standard[15] 3,000 ±1.8% 22 2 20 29 22 4
Feb 5–7 SWS[13] 1,200 ±3.0% 29 4 24 24 18 2
Feb 8 Presidential candidate Roy Señeres dies of cardiac arrest
Feb 9 Start of campaign period for candidates for president, vice president, senators and party-lists
Feb 13 DZRHMBC[16][17] 7,572 ±1.13% 23.2 3.9 26.4 27 19 2.3
Feb 21 First presidential debate in Cagayan de Oro
Feb 16–27 Pulse Asia[18] 5,200 ±1.4% 22 3 24 26 19 6
Feb 24–Mar 1 Standard[19] 3,000 ±1.8% 23 2 24 26 22 4
Mar 4–7 SWS [20] 1,800 ±2.0% 24 4 21 27 22 1
Mar 8 In a 9-6 vote, the Supreme Court affirms Grace Poe's natural-born status and declares she is qualified to run based on her 10-year residency
Mar 15–20 Pulse Asia[21] 4,000 ±1.5% 23 2 24 28 19 5
Mar 20 Second presidential debate in Cebu City
Mar 26–Apr 1 Standard[22] 3,000 ±1.8% 18 2 30 27 21 2
Apr 2 MBCDZRH[23] 7,490 ±1.13% 15 3.5 36 28.2 15.2 1.8
Apr 9 The Supreme Court declares that their vote on Grace Poe's natural-born status and 10-year residency is final and executory and she is eligible to become president
Apr 11–16 The Center[24] 1,800 ±2.5% 23.25 2 26.75 26.25 20.75 1
Apr 17 Rodrigo Duterte makes a joke about a murdered and raped Australian kidnap victim in a campaign rally
Apr 13–18 D' Strafford[25] 2,800 ±1.9% 19.1 4.1 20.4 25.9 26.2 4.2
Apr 16–20 Pulse Asia[26] 1,800 ±2.3% 16 2 35 23 17 6
Apr 18–20 SWS[27] 1,800 ±2.0% 14 2 33 24 19 8
Apr 19–24 Pulse Asia[28] 4,000 ±1.5% 18 2 33 22 20 5
Apr 24 Third presidential debate in Dagupan
Apr 27 Antonio Trillanes' expose on Rodrigo Duterte's alleged multimillion peso bank accounts and properties
Apr 23–29 The Center[29] 1,800 ±2.5% 23 2 29 25 21
Apr 25–29 D' Strafford[30] 4,500 ±1.2% 16.6 2.7 25.4 23.6 27.8 3
Apr 26–29 Pulse Asia[31] 4,000 ±1.5% 17 2 33 21 22 5
Apr 28–30 Argus [32] 6,000 ±1.9% 19 4 31 27 19
Apr 27–May 1 Standard[33] 3,000 ±1.8% 15 2 32 25 22 4
May 1–3 SWS[34] 4,500 ±1.0% 13 2 33 22 20 10
May 1–5 D' Strafford [35] 4,500 ±1.2% 16.6 3 25.4 22.5 30.5 2
May 9 Election day

Pangalawang Pangulo

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Opinion polling in the vice presidential election, using three-survey moving average.                      Alan Peter Cayetano                      Francis Escudero                      Gringo Honasan                      Bongbong Marcos                      Leni Robredo                      Antonio Trillanes                      Others                      None/undecided
Date(s) conducted Pollster Sample
size
Margin of
error
Cayetano
(Ind.)
Escudero
(Ind.)
Honasan
(UNA)
Marcos
(Ind.)
Robredo
(LP)
Trillanes
(Ind.)
Undecided
None
Other
Jan 8–10 SWS[13] 1,800 ±2.0% 14 28 8 25 17 3 4
Jan 24–28 Pulse Asia[14] 1,200 ±3.0% 14 33 5 23 18 4 3
Jan 27–Feb 4 Standard [15] 3,000 ±1.8% 15 31 5 25 20 4
Feb 5–7 SWS[13] 1,200 ±3.0% 16 26 6 26 19 5 2
Feb 9 Start of campaign period for candidates for president, vice president, senators and party-lists
Feb 13 DZRHMBC[16] 7,572 ±1.13% 14.8 26.8 5.5 25.1 18.8 6.2 2.7
Feb 16–27 Pulse Asia[18] 5,400 ±1.4% 13 26 5 26 19 6 6
Feb 24–Mar 1 Standard[36] 3,000 ±1.8% 11 30 4 24 20 7 5
Mar 4–7 SWS [20] 1,800 ±2.0% 11 28 5 26 24 6
Mar 15–20 Pulse Asia[21] 4,000 ±1.5% 14 25 5 25 21 4 5
Mar 26–Apr 1 Standard[22] 3,000 ±1.8% 15 28 3 25 21 5 4
Apr 2 MBCDZRH[23] 7,490 ±1.13% 18.4 22.6 4.3 29.8 17.9 5.5 1.6
Apr 10 First vice presidential debate in Manila
Apr 11–16 The Center[24] 1,800 ±2.5% 15 23 4 29 25 3 1
Apr 17 Second vice presidential debate in Quezon City
Apr 13–18 D' Strafford[25] 2,800 ±1.9% 17 23 1 25 32 2
Apr 16–20 Pulse Asia[26] 1,800 ±2.3% 16 18 4 29 24 3 7
Apr 18–20 SWS[27] 1,800 ±2.0% 16 18 2 25 26 5 8
Apr 19–24 Pulse Asia[28] 4,000 ±1.5% 15 18 2 31 26 3 5
Apr 27 Antonio Trillanes' expose on Rodrigo Duterte's alleged multimillion peso bank accounts and properties
Apr 23–29 The Center[29] 4,000 ±2.5% 15 18 5 31 25 3 3
Apr 25–29 D' Strafford[30] 4,500 ±1.2% 16 18 2 28 34 1 1
Apr 26–29 Pulse Asia[31] 4,000 ±1.5% 15 18 3 28 30 2 4
Apr 28–30 Argus [32] 6,000 ±1.9% 13 22 4 33 24 4
Apr 27–May 1 Standard[37] 3,000 ±1.8% 12 20 3 30 29 3 3
May 1–3 SWS[38] 4,500 ±1.0% 13 15 3 29 28 3 9
May 1–5 D' Strafford [35] 4,500 ±1.2% 17 18 1 25 35 3 2
May 9 Election day

Kinalabasan

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Narito ang mga resulta ng Halalan para sa Pagkapangulo at Pagka-Pangalawang Pangulo sa Pilipinas. Ito ay ayon sa opisyal na bilang ng Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas.

Pangulo

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Tulad ng sa taas, ngunit pinapakita ang porsyento ng mga nanalong kandidato bawat lalawigan at lungsod. Tandaan na upang maiwasan ang kalituhan kay Roxas, kulay pula ang ginamit kay Duterte na kanyang kulay noong kampanya.
e • d 
Kandidato Partido Boto %
Rodrigo Duterte Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan (Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power) 16,601,997 39.01%
Mar Roxas Liberal Party 9,978,175 23.45%
Grace Poe Independyente 9,100,991 21.39%
Jejomar Binay United Nationalist Alliance 5,416,140 12.73%
Miriam Defensor Santiago People's Reform Party 1,455,532 3.42%
Kabuuan 42,552,835 100%
Mga balidong boto 42,552,835 94.61%
Roy Señeres[p 1] Partido ng Manggagawa at Magsasaka (Workers' and Peasants' Party) 25,779 0.06%
Kabuuang bilang ng mga pinawalang bisang boto 2,426,316 5.39%
Votes cast 44,979,151 81.5%
Rehistradong mga botante 55,739,911 100%
  1. Withdrew on February 5, 2016, and died three days later. All of his votes are to be considered as spoiled votes.

Pangalawang Pangulo

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Detalye ng halalan ng panglawang pangulo sa lalawigan at lungsod.
e • d 
Kandidato Partido Boto %
Leni Robredo Liberal Party 14,418,817 35.11%
Bongbong Marcos Independent [v 1] 14,155,344 34.47%
Alan Peter Cayetano Independent [v 2] 5,903,379 14.38%
Francis Escudero Independent 4,931,962 12.01%
Antonio Trillanes Independent [v 3] 868,501 2.11%
Gringo Honasan United Nationalist Alliance 788,881 1.92%
Total 41,066,884 100%
Valid votes 41,066,884 91.30%
Invalid votes 3,912,267 8.70%
Votes cast 44,979,151 81.5%
Registered voters 55,739,911 100%
  1. Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; Miriam Defensor Santiago's (PRP) guest candidate for vice president
  2. Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; Rodrigo Duterte's (PDP–Laban) guest candidate for vice president
  3. Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; supported by Magdalo and endorsed Grace Poe as President

Hindi opisyal na Resulta

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Provincial and city breakdown of presidential race 2016.
2016 Philippine presidential election, COMELEC transparency server
Candidate Party Votes
Rodrigo Duterte PDP-Laban 15,970,018
Mar Roxas Liberal 9,700,382
Grace Poe Independent 8,935,733
Jejomar Binay UNA 5,318,249
Miriam Defensor Santiago PRP 1,424,520
Roy Señeres PMM 25,161
Turnout 43,716,817
Registered voters 55,735,757
Clustered precincts reporting 90,635 of 94,276
As of May 18, 2016, 7:45 PM Philippine Standard Time[39]
 
Provincial and city breakdown of vice presidential race 2016.
2016 Philippine vice presidential election, COMELEC transparency server
Candidate Party Votes
Leni Robredo Liberal 14,023,093
Bongbong Marcos Independent 13,803,966
Alan Peter Cayetano Independent 5,679,102
Francis Escudero Independent 4,812,375
Antonio Trillanes Independent 844,157
Gringo Honasan UNA 760,409
Turnout 43,716,817
Registered voters 55,735,757
Clustered precincts reporting 90,635 of 94,276
As of May 18, 2016, 7:45 PM Philippine Standard Time[40]
 
Robredo
 
Marcos
 
Cayetano
 
Escudero
 
Municipal level breakdown of the presidential race
 
Municipal level breakdown of the vice presidential race

Botong demograpiko

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Pangulo

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Demograpiko subgrupo Duterte Roxas Poe Binay Defensor Santiago % of
total vote
Total vote 39 24 19 14 3 100
Rehiyon
NCR 44 14 21 14 7 11
Rehiyong I 26 13 34 19 8 5
Rehiyong II 18 12 21 46 3 3
Rehiyong III 34 17 31 15 4 11
Rehiyong IV-A 34 17 28 17 4 13
Rehiyong IV-B 22 35 28 13 1 3
Rehiyong V 14 36 36 12 2 6
Komunidad
Urban 44 28 13 15 44
Rural 39 30 18 13 56
Kasarian
Lalake 39 32 15 14 46
Babae 43 27 17 13 54
Edukasyon
Mataas na paaralan 34 26 22 16 2 -
Kolehiyo 49 20 13 10 7 -
Relihiyon
Romano Katoliko 41 31 16 12 80
Islam 48 12 30 10 5
Iglesia Ni Cristo 85 10 1 4 4
Aglipayan 38 27 22 13 1
Iba 24 34 16 26 10
Ethnic groups
Tagalog 43 34 11 12 35
Cebuano 39 31 14 16 26
Ilocano 28 33 26 13 8

Source: Exit polls conducted by Social Weather Stations[41]

Pangalawang Pangulo

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Sanggunian

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  1. "Ang Konstitusyon ng Republika ng Pilipinas, 1987, Artikulo VII§4". GOVPH. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2016-05-05. Nakuha noong 2016-04-25. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (tulong); Unknown parameter |text= ignored (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  2. Esmaquel, Paterno II (2015-10-16). "'Record-high' 130 bets run for Philippine president" (sa wikang Ingles). Rappler. Nakuha noong 2016-04-25.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Villa, Jet (2016-02-15). "Comelec releases official list of candidates" (sa wikang Ingles). InterAksyon.com. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2016-04-25. Nakuha noong 2016-04-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  4. Gotinga, JC (2015-12-15). "Comelec postpones release of final list of candidates" (sa wikang Ingles). CNN Philippines. Nakuha noong 2016-04-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)[patay na link]
  5. Gotinga, JC (2016-02-05). "Señeres withdraws from presidential race" (sa wikang Ingles). CNN Philippines. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2016-02-06. Nakuha noong 2016-04-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  6. "Roy Señeres dies of cardiac arrest" (sa wikang Ingles). CNN Philippines. 2016-02-08. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2016-02-09. Nakuha noong 2016-04-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  7. Crisostomo, Sheila (2016-02-16). "Ballot printing starts" (sa wikang Ingles). Nakuha noong 2016-04-25.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  8. Escarilla, Abbie (2016-02-03). "Comelec panel junks 4 Duterte disqualification cases for lack of merit" (sa wikang Ingles). NewsCentral.PH. Nakuha noong 2016-04-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)[patay na link]
  9. Elemia, Camille (2015-12-24). "How Comelec commissioners voted on Grace Poe's case" (sa wikang Ingles). Rappler. {{cite web}}: Unknown parameter |acceessdate= ignored (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  10. Francisco, Katerina (2016-03-08). "SC stops Comelec from cancelling Poe COC" (sa wikang Ingles). Rappler. Nakuha noong 2016-04-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  11. "Supreme Court allows Grace Poe to run for president" (sa wikang Ingles). Rappler. 2016-03-08. Nakuha noong 2016-04-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  12. Bueza, Michael (18 Abril 2016). "43 minutes of TV ads in 2-hour ABS-CBN VP debate". Rappler. Nakuha noong 18 Abril 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 "Binay leads over Poe, Roxas and Duterte in Presidential race; Escudero and Marcos lead over Robredo and Cayetano in VP race; Sotto, Lacson, Recto and Pangilinan lead Senatorial race". www.sws.org.ph. Nakuha noong 2016-01-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Poe still ahead in tighter race". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Disyembre 21, 2015.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Poe keeps lead in Laylo survey". Standard. Pebrero 9, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Abril 27, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 6, 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  16. 16.0 16.1 "DZRH News – Desisyon 2016: Poe, Chiz tops MBC second wave survey". DZRH. Pebrero 18, 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  17. "Poe leads, Binay gains in MBC poll". The Manila Times. Pebrero 18, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Mayo 4, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 6, 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  18. 18.0 18.1 De Vera, Ellalyn (2016-03-09). "Pulse Asia survey: Binay, Poe remain the top contenders". Manila Bulletin. Nakuha noong Abril 2, 2016. {{cite web}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  19. Panares, Joyce Pangco (2016-03-07). "Closer than ever". Manila Standard. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2016-03-07. Nakuha noong 7 Marso 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Poe takes the lead; Robredo closes in". Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2017-05-10. Nakuha noong 2016-04-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  21. 21.0 21.1 Esguerra, Christian V. (Abril 1, 2016). "Poe regains solo lead in ABS-CBN Pulse Asia survey". ABS-CBN News. Nakuha noong Abril 1, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Duterte surges in Standard poll". Manila Standard. Abril 5, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Mayo 8, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 3, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  23. 23.0 23.1 "Duterte tops MBC-DZRH latest survey". DZRH. Abril 5, 2016. Nakuha noong Abril 6, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  24. 24.0 24.1 "It's still a 4-way fight: Duterte falls, Binay inches up". The Daily Tribune. Abril 23, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Abril 25, 2016. Nakuha noong Abril 23, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Roxas, Poe 'tied' at top spot – D' Strafford poll". Sun Star Cebu. Abril 20, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Abril 21, 2016. Nakuha noong Abril 21, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  26. 26.0 26.1 "PULSE ASIA POLL: Duterte, Bongbong pad leads further". News5. Abril 26, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Abril 27, 2016. Nakuha noong Abril 26, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  27. 27.0 27.1 "BusinessWorld-SWS April 2016 Survey: Duterte leads despite 'rape' joke; Leni, Bongbong tied in VP". News5. Abril 24, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Abril 25, 2016. Nakuha noong Abril 24, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  28. 28.0 28.1 "Duterte, Marcos sustain leads in latest Pulse Asia survey". CNN Philippines. Abril 30, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Mayo 2, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 2, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Marcos widens lead in new survey". The Manila Times. Mayo 3, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Mayo 4, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 3, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Roxas leads pre-election survey". Manila Bulletin. Mayo 1, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 2, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  31. 31.0 31.1 "Amid bank controversy, Duterte keeps survey lead". Rappler. Mayo 3, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 3, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Poe dikit uli kay Digong". Pilipino Star Ngayon. Mayo 6, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 7, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  33. "Duterte on top". Manila Standard. Mayo 5, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Mayo 5, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 5, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  34. "Duterte widens lead in final pre-election SWS survey". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Mayo 6, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 6, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  35. 35.0 35.1 "Election 2016: May 2016". D' Strafford. Mayo 7, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Mayo 12, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 7, 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  36. Panares, Joyce Pangco (2016-03-08). "Chiz still leads VP race; Cayetano fading". Manila Standard. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2016-03-08. Nakuha noong 8 Marso 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  37. "Marcos still up, but Leni rallies". Manila Standard. Mayo 6, 2016. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong Mayo 6, 2016. Nakuha noong Mayo 6, 2016. {{cite news}}: Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
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