Kalsiyo

(Idinirekta mula sa Kalsyo)

Ang kalsyo o kalsyum (Kastila: calcio, Ingles: calcium, may sagisag na Ca, atomikong bilang na 20, atomikong timbang na 40.08, punto ng pagkatunaw na mula 842 hanggang 48 °C, punto ng pagkulong 1,487 °C, espesipikong grabidad na 1.55, at V na 2) ay isang elementong metalikong kahawig ng pilak at medyo may katigasan. Isa ito sa mahahalagang sangkap sa mga buto, sa mga kabibe, at sa mga dahon. Sangkap din ito sa paggawa ng plaster, apog, at semento. Natuklasan ito noong 1808 ni Humphry Davy.[8]

Calcium, 20Ca
Calcium
Appearancedull gray, silver; with a pale yellow tint[1]
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Ca)
  • 40.078±0.004
  • 40.078±0.004 (pinaikli)[2][3]
Calcium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Mg

Ca

Sr
potassiumcalciumscandium
Atomic number (Z)20
Group2
Period4
Block  s-block
Electron configuration[Ar] 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolido
Melting point1115 K ​(842 °C, ​1548 °F)
Boiling point1757 K ​(1484 °C, ​2703 °F)
Density (at 20° C)1.526 g/cm3[4]
when liquid (at m.p.)1.378 g/cm3
Heat of fusion8.54 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization154.7 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.929 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 864 956 1071 1227 1443 1755
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1,[5] +2 (isang matapang na panimulang oksido)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.00
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 589.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1145.4 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4912.4 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 197 pm
Covalent radius176±10 pm
Van der Waals radius231 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Mga linyang espektral ng calcium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordiyal
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc) (cF4)
Lattice constant
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for calcium
a = 558.8 pm (at 20 °C)[4]
Thermal expansion22.27×10−6/K (at 20 °C)[4]
Thermal conductivity201 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity33.6 nΩ⋅m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility+40.0×10−6 cm3/mol[6]
Young's modulus20 GPa
Shear modulus7.4 GPa
Bulk modulus17 GPa
Speed of sound thin rod3810 m/s (at 20 °C)
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs hardness1.75
Brinell hardness170–416 MPa
CAS Number7440-70-2
History
Discovery and first isolationHumphry Davy (1808)
Isotopes of calcium
Main isotopes[7] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
40Ca 96.9% stable
41Ca trace 9.94×104 y ε 41K
42Ca 0.647% stable
43Ca 0.135% stable
44Ca 2.09% stable
45Ca synth 163 d β 45Sc
46Ca 0.004% stable
47Ca synth 4.5 d β 47Sc
48Ca 0.187% 6.4×1019 y ββ 48Ti
Kategorya Kategorya: Calcium
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  1. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (ika-2nd (na) edisyon). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  2. "Standard Atomic Weights: Calcium" (sa wikang Ingles). CIAAW. 1983.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  3. Prohaska, Thomas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Benefield, Jacqueline; Böhlke, John K.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ding, Tiping; Dunn, Philip J. H.; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Meijer, Harro A. J. (2022-05-04). "Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry (sa wikang Ingles). doi:10.1515/pac-2019-0603. ISSN 1365-3075.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Arblaster, John W. (2018). Selected Values of the Crystallographic Properties of Elements. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. ISBN 978-1-62708-155-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  5. Krieck, Sven; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias (2010). "Mechanistic Elucidation of the Formation of the Inverse Ca(I) Sandwich Complex [(thf)3Ca(μ-C6H3-1,3,5-Ph3)Ca(thf)3] and Stability of Aryl-Substituted Phenylcalcium Complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society (sa wikang Ingles). 132 (35): 12492–12501. doi:10.1021/ja105534w. PMID 20718434.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  6. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  7. Kondev, F. G.; Wang, M.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Audi, G. (2021). "The NUBASE2020 evaluation of nuclear properties" (PDF). Chinese Physics C. 45 (3): 030001. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/abddae.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  8. Gaboy, Luciano L. Calcium, kalsyo, kalsyum - Gabby's Dictionary: Praktikal na Talahuluganang Ingles-Filipino ni Gabby/Gabby's Practical English-Filipino Dictionary, GabbyDictionary.com.